Brookfield Reflection Model

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Hello Everyone. In this article I will try to explain the Brookfield Reflection Model in a practical way. After reading you will understand the basics of this powerful communication tool. Get ready and move on. . .

What is the Brookfield Reflection Model?

The Brookfield Reflection Model is a tool for teachers to discover the value of their lessons through critical self-reflection. Brookfield states that critically reflective teachers and tutors are excellent teachers who can authentically convey their own voice to others.

As teachers reflect more and better, they are better able to make reliable and accurate judgments about teaching approaches, evaluation, planning curriculum design, assessments and dealing with student problems. It is therefore crucial to perform these responsibilities with a critical evaluation from as many different perspectives as possible.

Many schools encourage teachers to think critically about their own teaching and student learning using Stephen Brookfield’s four different interconnections. These four reads are used for critical self-reflection, as well as by developing a critically reflective teacher.

Who developed the Brookfield reflection model?

The Brookfield Reflection Model was developed by Stephen Brookfield in 1995. Brookfield has taught in several countries during his teaching career. Among others, he taught in the United States, England and Canada. During his career Brookfield wrote nineteen books. The topics of these books ranged from critical thinking, discussion methods, critical theory and learning racing. His goal has always been to help adults learn to think critically about the dominant ideas that each person has internalized.

What are the four reads of Brookfield’s critical reflection?

According to Brookfield, critically reflective teachers provide three benefits:

  • Inspiring confidence
  • Achieving SMART goals
  • Motivated, critically reflective students

The goal of the critically reflective teacher is to acquire a greater awareness of her or his own teaching from as many points of view as possible. For this Stephen Brookfield has developed four reads in the Brookfield reflection model. These can be used by teachers in the process of critical reflection. It concerns the following four reads, or perspectives:

  1. The autobiographical lens
  2. The eyes of the student
  3. The experiences of colleagues
  4. Theoretical literature

These reading correlate with the processes of self-reflection, feedback , peer review, and deliberation on scientific literature. By continuously improving these processes, the foundation is laid for better education and the means to become a good teacher.

1. The autobiographical lens

This is the first lens of the Brookfield reflection model, and is also where a teacher can reveal aspects of pedagogy that may need to be enhanced or modified. The autobiographical lens helps teachers to consider their own experiences with students in relation to teaching and learning. The analysis of this learning experience will help uncover assumptions and beliefs about how people learn.

Aspects of their pedagogy can be revealed through textbooks, evaluations, student feedback, personal results or other techniques. Self-reflection is the basis for reflective education.

Activities within the autobiographical perspective

  • Philosophy of Education and Learning
  • Recordings
  • Education logs
  • Audits
  • Opinions

2. The eyes of the student

It is necessary to go beyond mere reflection through the autobiographical lens. According to the Brookfield reflection model, it is of the utmost importance that teachers understand the experiences of students. Teachers can do this by, for example, conducting evaluations with students, about learning styles, testing methods, focus groups or interviews. This ensures that they will teach more responsibly. The student lens further reveals whether assumptions about power relationships need to be adjusted, as well as student learning habits through feedback.

Activity perspective of the student

  • Formal Evaluations
  • Classroom evaluations
  • Focus groups
  • Conversations
  • Letters
  • Questionnaires

3. The experiences of colleagues

Good teachers keep their focus on the first two lenses, but excellent teachers will also be deeply involved in those processes, as well as reaching out to peers for mentoring, advice and feedback. In addition, teachers can gain confidence through contacts with other teachers. That’s because they discover that they are not the only ones who make strange mistakes, but that they are shared by peers. Also exchange experiences in the field of working in teams, participating in seminars, workshops, peer reviews, or thinking about educational theories and methods.

Activities experiences of colleagues

  • Learning circles
  • Collaborative Problem Solving
  • Critical interviews and evaluations

4. The theoretical literature

The fourth and final lens of the Brookfield reflection model for critical reflection in education is contained in the scientific literature on higher education. Teachers who research, present, or publish this literature have advanced vocabulary and many methods of teaching practice. A commitment to both scientific literature and colleagues supports teachers.

Activities theoretical literature

  • Conferences
  • Trade magazines
  • Research

Tips for introducing critical reflection in education

As a teacher it is sometimes difficult to apply new methods or techniques while teaching. Use the step-by-step plan below to stimulate critical reflection in the students.

Tip 1: arouse curiosity

When students have to learn new concepts or topics, they often experience a sense of uncertainty and imbalance if they do not immediately understand the new information. Critical reflection is needed to assess new information and resolve the imbalance. It takes a lot of energy and time to do this. Arousing curiosity in students can motivate them to participate in the reflection process. Providing the right activities and asking the right questions can help spark curiosity.

Tip 2: make reflection continuous

Integrate periodic, structured opportunities to reflect on learning. Because critical reflection is a defined way of thinking, students should have sufficient opportunities to give and receive feedback. Various activities can be used to promote reflection, including: writing exercises, problem-solving activities, role-plays, discussions and simulations. Working in groups is also an important activity to stimulate reflection. To be effective, however, the activity must be linked to the learning outcomes of a course or training.

Tip 3: give reflection the right context

To support the integration of learning into courses, it is important to engage students with major questions pertaining to public or community issues that can be addressed outside the classroom. This is where the Brookfield reflection model can make a difference. Reflective activities then encourage students to identify and consider messy, poorly defined problems that do not have a correct answer or approach. This helps mold them to a higher order of thinking and levels of reflection.

Tip 4: model the reflective process

By organizing and modeling the feedback or reflection process by asking the kind of questions that are specific to a discipline. Indicate how a claim is supported with evidence, and explain during the process how the reflection process is modeled. Giving students a rubric also allows them to practice the process.

Tip 5: Encourage evaluation from different perspectives

Being exposed to different perspectives is crucial to the reflective thinking process. This can be achieved through discussions with classmates, lectures, websites, simulations or case studies. They all represent different points of view, and are able to enter into dialogue with others on matters that are crucial. Students can work on this by getting started with collaborative projects.

The usefulness of critical thinking

There is no one who can think critically all the time. Sometimes our thinking is affected by anger, sadness or joy. On the other hand, it is possible to increase current critical thinking capacity by performing certain routine activities on problems of everyday life. This is also the goal of the Brookfield reflection model. Try the following simple exercise.

Exercise critical thinking

Think about something someone recently told you. This could be random news, gossip or story. Then ask yourself the following questions:

  • Who said it?
  • A well-known?
  • Someone with a certain level of authority?
  • Does it matter who told this?
  • What has been said?
  • Have facts been communicated?
  • Or opinions?
  • Has anything been left out in the story?
  • Where was this said?
  • Was it in public?
  • Or private?
  • Has the person in question had the opportunity to respond to it? Or to deny?
  • Why did they say it?
  • Is someone trying to get out of a story well?
  • Has the reasoning behind their opinion been communicated?
  • Have you tried recording it for someone?
  • How is it said?
  • Was the person happy or sad? Angry or Indifferent?
  • Is it written or spoken?
  • Can you understand what was said?

The skills required to think and evaluate critically are varied and include analysis, interpretations, reflections, observations, explanations and problem solving, as well as decision making. In any case, teachers must be able to:

  • To look at a topic or problem in an objective and self-critical way
  • Identify various arguments related to a particular problem
  • Recognize weak or negative points in evidence and arguments
  • Evaluate views to determine how valid it is
  • Provide structured reasoning and support for the argument being made
  • Notice the implications or problems of a statement or argument

The Stephen Brookfield Critical Incident Survey

Each week throughout his teaching career, Brookfield asked students to complete a questionnaire. The answers that are given are a central part of the feedback that a critically reflective teacher receives on a continuous basis. The questionnaire takes approximately five minutes of students’ time to respond to each of the questions below. The questionnaires must be completed anonymously. Therefore, do not have the names written on the paper. At the end of the next lesson, Brookfield discussed the answers with the group. It is important to actively thank the students for their participation. After all, they are one of the most important links to improve in the teaching profession. The questionnaire is therefore a very important part of the Brookfield reflection model.

The questions on the Stephen Brookfield Critical Incident Survey read as follows:

  • At what point in class, or at what class, did you feel most involved in what was happening?
  • At what point in the class, or at what class, did you feel the furthest away from what was being discussed or what was going on?
  • Which action, whether performed by a teacher or a fellow student, did you find most helpful and appropriate?
  • What action, whether performed by a teacher or a fellow student, did you find the most puzzling or confusing?
  • Which part of the curriculum surprised you the most during this week?

Reflective teaching

The subject of Brookfield’s reflection model is reflective teaching. This reflection process is a cycle that must be repeated to become even better at teaching. In short, this reflection process consists of the following steps:

  1. Teaching
  2. Assess effect of teaching on student learning
  3. Consider new methods that can improve quality
  4. Repeat process

Reflection is a systematic assessment process that can be used by all teachers. It is also a fundamental part of the Brookfield reflection model and should be part of every teacher’s toolbox. The reflection model encourages working with others, as others can be relied on for feedback and support. Ultimately, reflection on the part of the teacher ensures that students can learn better and more effectively. Everything is eventually tuned to them.

Now it’s your turn

What do you think? Do you recognize the explanation of the Brookfield reflection model? Is critical reflection applied in the educational system in which you are / were active? Do you think many teachers stick to old teaching methods? And that a radical change is needed in the way teaching is done? Or do you think the old methods are more effective than new and at first glance controversial methods?

Share your knowledge and experience via the comment field at the bottom of this article.

If you found the article useful or practical for your own knowledge, please share it with your network. Thank you so much.

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Four Ways COVID-19 is Changing the Financial Industry

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The corona virus has been gripping us for months. One thing is certain: the pandemic is changing the way we live and work. What is the lasting impact on financial services? What will happen to the branches of large banks and how important is personal contact for consumers? In this blog you will find a bit more in depth.

A Call for Financial Support for At-Risk Businesses, Workers in Developing  Countries Impacted by COVID-19 – USCIB

1. Digital banking is gaining momentum

In recent years, we have already seen significant growth in digital payments. This is accelerated by COVID-19: consumers are becoming more dependent on digital transactions and are also reluctant to use cash, for fear of transmission of the virus. In my personal perception consumers often opt for digital payments. This includes credit cards, pin payments, internet banking and mobile payments.

Within the financial world, the effect of the corona crisis is like a turbo on an already accelerated engine of change. In some big countries where ICT is well developed, COVID-19 has only strengthened this position more and more. This number of contactless and mobile payments has further increased in recent months. Mark my words that this situation will continue.

COVID-19 Financial Services Response Network | World Economic Forum

2. Need for personal contact remains

The number of physical offices and branches in digital services was already slowly declining: the lockdowns worldwide are making an additional contribution to this decline. In my opinion I think big financial institutes will accelate the reduction of their number of branches, and that some branches that are currently closed will no longer open due to the crisis.

But believe me, remarkably, consumers still need personal contact. Otherwise I don’t think that this will return to the old normal.

Consumers probably still want personal, face-to-face contact when seeking advice on complex financial products and transactions.

Nevertheless, the pandemic has shown how important it is to have digital services in order and to familiarize customers with them. 

3. More savings, more security

Consumers take less risk with their money. Before the corona outbreak, a large amount preferred to save their money.  We also see that consumers are more oriented towards their life, household effects and health insurance are some of the things playing these days.

4. Loyalty in question

The way financial services firms deal with the corona crisis is impacting consumer loyalty. People are changing their financial strategies on the run. Many of them are switching to BigTechs and Fintechs.

Major financial players must ensure that they continue to bind their consumers in the coming period, for example through new products and services or an improved customer experience. Otherwise, there is a good chance that young consumers in particular will switch to new digital alternatives.

Live: Forum on global economic and financial landscape in Lujiazui - CGTN

Stronger from the crisis

The way in which organizations act in this corona crisis determines their image among consumers. Not just in the short term: this picture lingers for months or years. It is now a matter of helping insecure consumers with their financial issues. This is the perfect opportunity to think about sustainability policy. By investing in digitization, you increase customer loyalty and your organization will emerge stronger from the crisis.

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WHAT IS GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY

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This article provides a practical explanation of the Gestalt psychology of Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka, and Wolfgang Köhler. After reading you will understand the basics of this powerful psychological tool.

Gestalt Psychology: Principles, Theory And Gestalt Therapy

What is Gestalt Psychology?

‘Gestalt’ is originally a German word used to talk about the way something is put together, often translated as the ‘form’ or the whole. Gestalt psychology can be defined as a school of thought that originated in the 1920s and believes that the whole of an object or pattern is larger and more important than its parts. Gestalt psychology encourages us to see and treat the mind and behavior as a whole. This approach creates order in the chaos by combining loose information and looking for patterns.

Gestaltism / Gestalt Theory. An introduction to the psychology… | by Lukas  Oppermann | Medium

Gestalt psychology has also contributed to research into experience and perception. The aim was to understand how people give meaning to the world around them and how they find order in the disorder. According to Gestalt psychology, how people interpret what they see in the world around them depends on what they expect to see. They will look for patterns in what they see and experience.

Who are the founders of Gestalt psychology?

Gestalt psychology was developed in Germany in the early twentieth century by psychologist Max Wertheimer in collaboration with Kurt Koffka and Wolfgang Köhler. They met at the Psychological Institute of the University of Frankfurt, where Wertheimer worked as a professor and Koffka and Köhler were his assistants. At that university they also developed their own mindset, Gestalt psychology.

Wertheimer is known for a concept called the phi phenomenon. During his travels, he noticed at a train station that two separate flashing lights created the illusion of movement. Subsequently, Wertheimer became interested in the study of perception, which laid the foundation for his research into Gestalt psychology. With his research he responded to structuralism and the approach of psychologist Wilhelm Wundt, who was known for dividing psychological events into separate parts. However, Wertheimer felt that the parts were related and believed in looking at the human mind and behavior as a whole.

Experiments

An experiment, similar to the experience Wertheimer had with the two flashing lights at the station, was the beginning of research into Gestalt psychology. For this experiment, Wertheimer and his colleagues Koffka and Köhler focused on the concept of ‘apparent movement’. They found that when two lights blink in quick succession, an illusion of continuous movement is created. Instead of two separate lights, the person sees one light that moves from the spot of the first light to the spot of the second light. This was another result that contributed to the Gestaltists’ belief that the human mind has a way of organizing based on seeing things as a whole rather than as separate parts.

What are the main principles of Gestalt psychology?

After Gestalt Psychology was established, co-founder Kurt Koffka published ‘Principles of Gestalt Psychology’ in which he explained Gestalt theory and its principles. The following gestalt psychology principles describe the way human perception works and how we assign meaning to objects and events.

Close proximity

This principle states that when the human eye sees elements that are placed close together, we consider these elements as a set or group. An example of this is the way we read a text. When letters are grouped together, our perception is that they form a word.

Likeness

A second way in which people tend to group elements in their visual field is by looking for similarities. Elements that look alike are automatically grouped together. For example, when you watch a sports game and see people wearing the same color shirts, you see them as members of the same team.

Continuation

Another part of Gestalt psychology is the principle of continuation, which states that the human eye prefers to see a continuous line or movement rather than separate elements. For example, when we see a sign on a building where a tree is partly in front of the letter x, we still recognize that letter and can read the sign without any problems. We see the continuity of the lines.

Closedness

This principle explains that people have a preference for complete elements. When we see things that are incomplete, we can fill in missing information to see it as complete anyway. This principle is often applied in the advertising world. Advertisers come up with incomplete statements that people can then finish. With this approach, they hope to generate interest and engage their audience more.

Figure-ground

The principle of figure and ground shows how people distinguish between figures and the ground in their visual field. The figure is the object that is central to our visual field, the ground is less present and is placed in the background. This explains how one person’s perception of an object or situation may differ from someone else’s: it depends on what is seen as the figure and what is seen as the ground. This principle was applied by the Danish psychologist Edgar Rubin, who experimented with optical illusions.

Common destination

Another principle of Gestalt psychology is that of common destiny. When the human eye sees elements moving together in a certain direction, they are usually considered as a group. An example of a common destination is seeing children running to the playground together, thus seeing them as a whole. It is possible to separate the elements when we do this consciously.

Pragnänz’s law

It is impossible to constantly spend time and energy on everything around us. We therefore tend to arrange the elements we see as simply as possible. The human mind prefers simplicity, so we try to simplify what we perceive. For example, when we see a car, we don’t need additional information to understand what we are looking at. This is called Pragnänz’s law. Pragnänz is a German word that can be translated as brevity.

law of pragnanz | The Law of Pragnanz is the tendency to int… | Flickr

In addition to the above principles that help us understand how human perception works, Gestalt theorists also recognize that the way we see the world is also influenced by other factors, such as personality, expectations and experiences.

Example of Gestalt Psychology

The example below is used to explain Gestalt psychology:
When there is no movement, people can still perceive movement, which was also the case with the two flashing lights that led to the phi phenomenon. For example, a film consists of a series of separate images, but by playing them in quick succession, we see a continuous movement that is not actually there. According to Gestalt psychologists, this is because our brains fill in the missing information. In this example, the missing information is the gaps between the images. This shows that the ‘whole’ plays a more important role in our brain than the sum of separate parts.

Application of Gestalt Psychology

Basic Psychology

Basic psychological processes, such as perception and attention, are strongly influenced by Gestalt psychology. These basic psychological processes are fundamental and are applied to practical matters. Developments within this research area are applied, for example, in programs to improve signage to prevent accidents. This is only possible with the knowledge we have about perception.

Communication

To be able to grab the attention of the public, people in communicative and creative fields work with Gestalt psychology. For people active as an artist, journalist or designer it is important to understand how the human mind interprets images. This knowledge can help them to produce works that convey the right message to their target audience.

Troubleshooting

In order to solve a problem, you must first understand it. Gestalt psychology believes that a problem consists of parts that are related and interact with each other. To fix the problem, rearrange these parts so that you can see a new solution. This creative rearrangement of the parts of a problem is called productive thinking. Gestalt psychologists recommend applying productive thinking when addressing various challenges.

Education

Within education, Gestalt psychology is applied to perception and problem solving. The application of gestalt psychology in education states that teachers should encourage their students to solve a problem by looking at the different parts of a problem and the interrelationships.

Therapy

Gestalt psychology-based therapy is a humanistic approach in which people are seen as strong and independent beings. It looks at the functioning of the human mind from a holistic perspective where each person has his or her own thoughts, experiences and reality.

The development of Gestalt therapy began in the 1940s with psychiatrist Fritz Perls. He argued that each person has his or her own reality that is determined by our own perception, and that it is our responsibility to change our perception. This way of thinking forms the basis of Gestalt therapy, in which personal growth and identity building are central.

The Gestalt Institute in Cleveland

The Gestalt Institute in Cleveland attracts people from all over the world. The institute organizes workshops and training programs based on Gestalt principles and methodologies. The workshops and training programs focus on change, both at the individual and organizational level.

Why Your Design Works or Some Laws in Gestalt Psychology - DEV

Daily practice

Gestalt psychology can also be applied to daily practice. As indicated in this article, Gestalt psychology can be used to solve problems and stimulate creativity. In addition, being aware of Gestalt principles helps us to understand how we perceive the world, how optical illusions work and to understand our own behavior.

Now it’s your turn

What do you think? Do you understand the explanation of Gestalt psychology? Do you recognize the principles in the way you perceive things yourself? Do you recognize Gestalt psychology in the way the people around you perceive the world? Is there any way you could apply Gestalt psychology in your work or study? Are there situations where you do not perceive objects or events as a whole? Do you have any comments or tips?

Share your knowledge and experience via the comment field at the bottom of this article.

If you found the article useful or practical for your own knowledge, please share it with your network. Thank you very much in advanced.

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