Social Interaction Theory


This article explains Bales ‘s social interaction theory in a practical way. After reading you will understand the basics of this powerful communication and coaching tool.

Social interaction

What is Social Interaction Theory?

Social Interaction Theory, also known as Social Interaction Systems Theory, was developed by Robert Freed Bales. Bales was a pioneer in Harvard University’s Social Relations Department at the time. The project from which this theory emerged was intended to develop an integrative framework for social psychology. This had to be based on the social interaction process, supplemented with value analyzes on the content of the interaction. Bales believed that this personal approach goes far beyond the classic experimental approach to group dynamics study.

Systematic Multiple Level Observation of Groups (SYMLOG)
As part of the research, Bales developed SYMLOG. This stands for Systematic Multiple Level Observation of Groups. The SYMLOG Consulting Group’s approach and operations were interactive and global. Among other things, it created a database that made it possible to search for connections between human interaction that went much further than previously known.

In the research prior to the publication of social interaction theory, the fundamental boundaries of the field were established, and the criteria for behavior for leaders and followers. To this end, Bales offers a new field theory. The new field theory is a reappraisal of the many contexts in which people live. Bales did not strive to reduce differences, but to understand them. He further emphasized that demental processes of individuals and social interaction take place in systematic contexts that can be measured. This allows behavior to be explained and predicted more accurately than in the past.

Interaction Process Analysis

Interaction Process Analysis is a term that describes a collection of methods that have evolved over the last twenty years. The methods take different forms and have been invented, borrowed and reinvented or improved. What the theories have in common is that it is based on first-hand observation of social interaction in small groups.

In addition to social interaction theory, Robert Bales also developed his Interaction Process Analysis. An observer was asked to record the actions and reactions of each of the group members in one of twelve categories. The categories were broken down as follows:

Shows solidarity . The person being observed raises the status of others, helps others, and gives rewards or compliments to others.

Decreases tension . The person being observed smiles, is relaxed, shows satisfaction or makes a joke.

Shows agreement . The person being observed shows acceptance, understanding or compliance with rules.

Provides suggestions . The person being observed gives directions to others, implies autonomy from others and is independent.

Gives opinion . The person being observed gives his or her opinion, shares analyzes with the rest of the group, shares feelings or wishes / demands.

Provides orientation . The person being observed gives information to others, repeats important things, confirms or clarifies when this is desired.

Requires orientation . The person being observed asks for information, or asks for confirmation or repetition when desired.

Asks for opinion . The person being observed asks for evaluations, analyzes or expressions of the feelings of others.

Asks for suggestions . The person being observed asks for direction or alternative options for action.

Agrees with this . The person being observed shows rejection or withholding help.

Shows tension . The person being observed asks for help or withdraws from the situation.

Shows antagonism . The observed person deflates the status of others and often defends his or her own.

Group roles in the Three Dimensional Space or Interpersonal Personality model

Bales was convinced that a person relies on their own personal observation of themselves and others in the group to get a clear picture of what an effective team member is. For example, a group member cannot be too far behind the work and natural flow of events, otherwise his or her participation will suffer. To describe these factors, Bales developed the Three Dimensional Space of Interpersonal Personality model in addition to the social interaction theory. This model describes both the value of someone for the group and the meaning of someone for the group. The type of role a person has is distinguished by the perception and evaluation of others in the group. These perceptions and evaluations are linked to behavior or the position someone is in.

Does he or she get a lot of people to laugh?

Does it look like she or he will rank high on leadership?
Does he or she seem to get a lot of interaction from others?
Does he or she seem to find himself entertaining?
Does he or she consider themselves a good person?
Does he or she seem to have a general trust in others?
Do you like him or her?

The answers to these questions together usually form a personality type. The answers provide a good insight into the discrepancies in someone’s behavior. Characteristics of a personality that are determined are not actually characteristics of the individual as such, but characteristics of the person in the role of the individual in a particular group. To understand the behavior of an individual in a group, it is essential to distinguish between permanent and personal traits of a person and those that are only displayed in a group role. To determine the personality of someone on a team, the entire group must be observed and how other group members rate the individual.

6 main roles

The Three Dimensional Space of Interpersonal Personality model is published in the book SYMLOG: A System for the Multiple Level Observation of Groups. This model begins by setting out the six main roles. These are:

Dominant (upward)
Checked (forward)
Friendly (positive)
Submissive (downward)
Emotionally expressive (backward)
Unfriendly (negative)
Associated properties

The model also contains the corresponding characteristics of the previously described main roles. These characteristics are:

Task leader
Happy to be with others

Role types and combinations of social interaction theory
The roles and characteristics mentioned above are used to identify the connections, networks and coalitions between different groups. Each type has a different combination of characteristics. The differentiating factor of the different types is based on the other characteristics associated with a person.

Type U is an active and talkative, powerful personality on the road to success and power. Type UP appears to be socially outgoing, friendly, positive and on the way to social success above all. Type UPF is friendly, value-oriented and a real task leader. He or she is on the road to solidarity and progress. Type UF is a person with strong leadership qualities, task oriented and evolving towards collaboration. Type UNF is dominant, morally superior and unfriendly. Type UB is non-task oriented, expressive and confident. He or she is also rebellious, aggressive and on the road to stubborn assertiveness. Type UPB is warm, affectionate, and moves toward warmth and emotional support to others.

Assuming different roles in social interactions according to social interaction theory
The first part of this article defined different roles and how people’s behavior can change when they work in groups. This section is mainly about how people assume different roles in everyday life.

Social interaction based on different roles happens almost automatically. A role is fulfilled without the person thinking about it. This is also the reason why social interaction is so accessible. If everyone always had to think before taking on a role, social interaction would become very slow, tedious and full of mistakes.

Suppose in a random store, an employee asks a customer how much he earns per month. You might expect such a personal question from a close friend, as discussions about personal matters are part of the roles befitting friends, but this is not expected from a store associate.

As the example above illustrates, social interaction relies in part on background assumptions or understanding the roles expected of people in different contexts. If this understanding of different roles is violated, the social order can easily be disrupted.

Sociologist Garfinkel explained that unexpected events such as those described above make the social order very vulnerable. He explains that people are constantly constructing the social environment in which they find themselves. To make his point, he had some of his students conduct experiments. Below was the assignment for students to behave like strangers in their own parents’ homes. It should come as no surprise that most parents are quick to wonder what college did to their kids.

Social interaction theory is thus mainly concerned with the fact that the social order is highly socially constructed. It’s exactly what people make of it when interacting with each other. Sociologists call this the social construction of reality. Although most people find themselves in situations where views are shared about what is to come, actors continue to define the situation and thus construct reality.

Roles and the influence on personalities
Thus, as described above, different roles help to construct the social order. However, taking on different roles has another effect. It may be that a personality is influenced / formed by this. The idea is that when people assume a new role, the expectations of that role can change the way we interact with others. It can also change the way we see and treat ourselves.

An example of this comes from Professor Kirkham, a criminal law professor in the United States. During his classes, Kirkham was critical of the harshness with which the police treated suspects. One of the police officers present in his class commented that Kirkham could not say such a thing because he did not know what it was like to be a police officer. They challenged him to do basic police training. After closing the base distraction, Kirkham walked out with a few cops. During the first shift they were asked to go to a cafe where a drunken man was causing trouble. Kirkham asked the man if he could go outside. Instead of listening, the wheel-turner slapped Kirkham on the face. In another event, they were called to a situation where bystanders were threatening to stand around their car. Kirkham took out a weapon to keep bystanders at bay. He later said about this that as a professor he would judge the officer he had become for his behavior. In a short space of time, Kirkham had turned from a nice professor to a serious cop. His role had thus changed, and probably also his personality to a small extent. In any case, his views are. His role had thus changed, and probably also his personality to a small extent. In any case, his views are. His role had thus changed, and probably also his personality to a small extent. In any case, his views are.

Now it’s your turn

What do you think? Do you recognize the explanation of the social interaction theory? Can you give an example of a situation where social order was disrupted? Do you have trouble taking on different roles, or is it automatic? What do you think is important when interacting with others? Can you share tips for people who have trouble interacting with others? Do you have any tips or comments about this article?
Share your knowledge and experience via the comment field at the bottom of this article.

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Seven (7) Differences between happy and unhappy relationships

How To Be Happy In A Relationship By Doing These 10 Subtle Things Every Day

Happy relationships are no accident. Neither are unhappy relationships. They are the result of conscious choices:

1 – Love and trust are handled differently from unhappy relationships.
2 – There is more depth and more is shared.
3 – Both partners are emotionally independent and appreciate this in each other.

Do you have to end your relationship immediately in case of relationship problems? No Fortunately not!

Learn from the lessons of happy relationships and apply them to avoid a lot of relationship problems.

Just read the comments below …

How do you get a happy relationship with someone else?

What is a Happy Relationship? Very simple, that is a relationship that gives you energy and where you and the other feel good. The secret to a happy relationship is to stay yourself and let the other person remain themselves.

How do you get a happy relationship? By working on it. But… you have to know very well if you have the right partner to do that. You cannot fly with a boat, so the choice of your relationship partner is very important.

Happy without a relationship or happier with a relationship?

Better happy without a relationship than not happy while you are in a relationship, isn’t it? In a happy relationship you don’t test each other, you trust and support each other. If not, then you may be better off without the other. You don’t have to have a huge spiritual relationship, but love and trust do have to be there.

These pillars of a relationship always remain important, whether you are in a long relationship or a short relationship with someone.

These are the seven TOP tips for a happy relationship:

1. Love makes for a happy relationship.

In unhealthy relationships, love is a bargaining chip: “I only love you if you do this for me. And when it does, I hate you. “

Love is a means to an end, which is to gain control over the relationship.

Unfortunately, control and happiness are at odds with each other. So trying to get control in your relationship (by trying to control the other) and being happy in your relationship don’t usually go together.

For example: As long as you do what the other wants, there is love. And otherwise there is the opposite: anger, aversion, jealousy or envy. So love is very limited and usually just a snapshot.

Set conditions for your happiness.

In happy relationships, few conditions are placed on love. “I love you just the way you are.” Or: “As long as you do what makes you happy, I’m too happy.” This allows love to grow.

And love only grows in trust, not in control, because control is based more on fear and fear hooks on love.

So let go of control:

The more you feel that the other person loves you the way you are, the more you can be yourself – and the more love you can give back.

2. No happy relationships without trust.

There is little trust in unhappy relationships. Whenever you are hurt by the other person’s behavior, trust diminishes. In the end you take everything the other says with a grain of salt. Without trust there is no love, depth, intimacy or understanding, so the relationship becomes increasingly distant.

People in happy relationships trust each other blindly. They know exactly what they can do for each other. Perhaps it took a long time for this confidence to be established. But once present, it continues to feed the relationship with positive energy. You know that the other person wants the best for you – and vice versa of course.

Trust is the most important ingredient to a happy relationship, be it a relationship with your partner, with your friends or with colleagues. Trust is everything.

3. Depth is necessary for every relationship.

In less good relationships communication is superficial. You never know what is really on the other’s mind – or you don’t feel the need to tell them what’s on your mind . As a result, conversations never get to the core: what someone really thinks or feels. There is a lot of talk about situations (what messages have been done, what the weather forecast is), but little about deeper feelings.

In happy relationships, that depth is there. There is talk about what really concerns the other. When you share the bed, you are physically intimate. When you share feelings, you are emotionally intimate. Without intimacy, there is only distance. Depth is essential to avoid that.

4. Sharing makes happy relationships even better.

Little is shared in superficial relationships. It seems as if everyone leads their own life and only lives together by chance. Interests are not shared, experiences are not exchanged and ideas are not discussed. The relationship resembles two islands with a very long bridge in between. You can only share by crossing. But usually that is a bridge too far. Everyone stays on their own island …

In happy relationships, a lot is shared (not everything, as there may be a part that you would rather share with others or keep to yourself). That sharing creates a bond. Sharing is giving something away and then receiving it twice back. As they say: “Sharing is caring.” Two islands have converged …

5. Laughter is healthy for any relationship.

There is little laughter in bad relationships. Everything is heavy and serious. There is usually no ability to put things into perspective. Sometimes people escape this by seeking pleasure outside of the relationship. “She’s always so serious, I just want to have fun with my friends.” Or: “He sees everything so black, at least with my best friend I can laugh …”

Happy relationships do involve a lot of laughter. Laughing together – even if it’s just about your own shortcomings – is so liberating! What do you do when you’ve had a rough day? Sometimes you just don’t feel like talking about it. Then you feel better at a comedy or a pillow fight. A day without laughter is a day wasted. Laughter provides light, warmth and relaxation. Smile, damn!

6. Without independence there is only dependence.

In difficult relationships there is always some form of dependence. One partner is dependent on the other. It doesn’t even have to be financial dependence. More often it is an emotional dependence. It’s as if one of the two cares less about what the other does. The person who has the least to lose if the relationship ends is the one who determines the relationship.

In healthy relationships there is equality. Two people decide: “We feel fine without each other, but even better together. We choose to be together. Not out of necessity or poverty, but out of love. ” Both people value each other and do not allow one to prevail or determine the relationship.

7. Appreciation is necessary for all happy relationships.

In bad relationships, the focus is very much on what the partner is doing wrong. “I say it every time, but you never get it right!” Or: “When will I get through to you?” Since the focus is on the other person ‘s shortcomings , there is a lot of dissatisfaction. More attention is paid to what is not there than to what is.

Happy couples appreciate each other.

1 – You know that the other is not perfect.

2 – You have no desire to change him or her.

3 – You forget the small mistakes and focus on what you do appreciate.

You cannot appreciate someone until you stop focusing on their flaws. That does not only apply to your relationship, but also to yourself!

Do you want a happy relationship with other people?

With your partner, or with your family, friends or colleagues?

Then you need more insight – and you also need to work on yourself. Because a good relationship always starts with a good relationship with yourself .

To your success.

Keep your relation moving.




This article provides a practical explanation of the Gestalt psychology of Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka, and Wolfgang Köhler. After reading you will understand the basics of this powerful psychological tool.

Gestalt Psychology: Principles, Theory And Gestalt Therapy

What is Gestalt Psychology?

‘Gestalt’ is originally a German word used to talk about the way something is put together, often translated as the ‘form’ or the whole. Gestalt psychology can be defined as a school of thought that originated in the 1920s and believes that the whole of an object or pattern is larger and more important than its parts. Gestalt psychology encourages us to see and treat the mind and behavior as a whole. This approach creates order in the chaos by combining loose information and looking for patterns.

Gestaltism / Gestalt Theory. An introduction to the psychology… | by Lukas  Oppermann | Medium

Gestalt psychology has also contributed to research into experience and perception. The aim was to understand how people give meaning to the world around them and how they find order in the disorder. According to Gestalt psychology, how people interpret what they see in the world around them depends on what they expect to see. They will look for patterns in what they see and experience.

Who are the founders of Gestalt psychology?

Gestalt psychology was developed in Germany in the early twentieth century by psychologist Max Wertheimer in collaboration with Kurt Koffka and Wolfgang Köhler. They met at the Psychological Institute of the University of Frankfurt, where Wertheimer worked as a professor and Koffka and Köhler were his assistants. At that university they also developed their own mindset, Gestalt psychology.

Wertheimer is known for a concept called the phi phenomenon. During his travels, he noticed at a train station that two separate flashing lights created the illusion of movement. Subsequently, Wertheimer became interested in the study of perception, which laid the foundation for his research into Gestalt psychology. With his research he responded to structuralism and the approach of psychologist Wilhelm Wundt, who was known for dividing psychological events into separate parts. However, Wertheimer felt that the parts were related and believed in looking at the human mind and behavior as a whole.


An experiment, similar to the experience Wertheimer had with the two flashing lights at the station, was the beginning of research into Gestalt psychology. For this experiment, Wertheimer and his colleagues Koffka and Köhler focused on the concept of ‘apparent movement’. They found that when two lights blink in quick succession, an illusion of continuous movement is created. Instead of two separate lights, the person sees one light that moves from the spot of the first light to the spot of the second light. This was another result that contributed to the Gestaltists’ belief that the human mind has a way of organizing based on seeing things as a whole rather than as separate parts.

What are the main principles of Gestalt psychology?

After Gestalt Psychology was established, co-founder Kurt Koffka published ‘Principles of Gestalt Psychology’ in which he explained Gestalt theory and its principles. The following gestalt psychology principles describe the way human perception works and how we assign meaning to objects and events.

Close proximity

This principle states that when the human eye sees elements that are placed close together, we consider these elements as a set or group. An example of this is the way we read a text. When letters are grouped together, our perception is that they form a word.


A second way in which people tend to group elements in their visual field is by looking for similarities. Elements that look alike are automatically grouped together. For example, when you watch a sports game and see people wearing the same color shirts, you see them as members of the same team.


Another part of Gestalt psychology is the principle of continuation, which states that the human eye prefers to see a continuous line or movement rather than separate elements. For example, when we see a sign on a building where a tree is partly in front of the letter x, we still recognize that letter and can read the sign without any problems. We see the continuity of the lines.


This principle explains that people have a preference for complete elements. When we see things that are incomplete, we can fill in missing information to see it as complete anyway. This principle is often applied in the advertising world. Advertisers come up with incomplete statements that people can then finish. With this approach, they hope to generate interest and engage their audience more.


The principle of figure and ground shows how people distinguish between figures and the ground in their visual field. The figure is the object that is central to our visual field, the ground is less present and is placed in the background. This explains how one person’s perception of an object or situation may differ from someone else’s: it depends on what is seen as the figure and what is seen as the ground. This principle was applied by the Danish psychologist Edgar Rubin, who experimented with optical illusions.

Common destination

Another principle of Gestalt psychology is that of common destiny. When the human eye sees elements moving together in a certain direction, they are usually considered as a group. An example of a common destination is seeing children running to the playground together, thus seeing them as a whole. It is possible to separate the elements when we do this consciously.

Pragnänz’s law

It is impossible to constantly spend time and energy on everything around us. We therefore tend to arrange the elements we see as simply as possible. The human mind prefers simplicity, so we try to simplify what we perceive. For example, when we see a car, we don’t need additional information to understand what we are looking at. This is called Pragnänz’s law. Pragnänz is a German word that can be translated as brevity.

law of pragnanz | The Law of Pragnanz is the tendency to int… | Flickr

In addition to the above principles that help us understand how human perception works, Gestalt theorists also recognize that the way we see the world is also influenced by other factors, such as personality, expectations and experiences.

Example of Gestalt Psychology

The example below is used to explain Gestalt psychology:
When there is no movement, people can still perceive movement, which was also the case with the two flashing lights that led to the phi phenomenon. For example, a film consists of a series of separate images, but by playing them in quick succession, we see a continuous movement that is not actually there. According to Gestalt psychologists, this is because our brains fill in the missing information. In this example, the missing information is the gaps between the images. This shows that the ‘whole’ plays a more important role in our brain than the sum of separate parts.

Application of Gestalt Psychology

Basic Psychology

Basic psychological processes, such as perception and attention, are strongly influenced by Gestalt psychology. These basic psychological processes are fundamental and are applied to practical matters. Developments within this research area are applied, for example, in programs to improve signage to prevent accidents. This is only possible with the knowledge we have about perception.


To be able to grab the attention of the public, people in communicative and creative fields work with Gestalt psychology. For people active as an artist, journalist or designer it is important to understand how the human mind interprets images. This knowledge can help them to produce works that convey the right message to their target audience.


In order to solve a problem, you must first understand it. Gestalt psychology believes that a problem consists of parts that are related and interact with each other. To fix the problem, rearrange these parts so that you can see a new solution. This creative rearrangement of the parts of a problem is called productive thinking. Gestalt psychologists recommend applying productive thinking when addressing various challenges.


Within education, Gestalt psychology is applied to perception and problem solving. The application of gestalt psychology in education states that teachers should encourage their students to solve a problem by looking at the different parts of a problem and the interrelationships.


Gestalt psychology-based therapy is a humanistic approach in which people are seen as strong and independent beings. It looks at the functioning of the human mind from a holistic perspective where each person has his or her own thoughts, experiences and reality.

The development of Gestalt therapy began in the 1940s with psychiatrist Fritz Perls. He argued that each person has his or her own reality that is determined by our own perception, and that it is our responsibility to change our perception. This way of thinking forms the basis of Gestalt therapy, in which personal growth and identity building are central.

The Gestalt Institute in Cleveland

The Gestalt Institute in Cleveland attracts people from all over the world. The institute organizes workshops and training programs based on Gestalt principles and methodologies. The workshops and training programs focus on change, both at the individual and organizational level.

Why Your Design Works or Some Laws in Gestalt Psychology - DEV

Daily practice

Gestalt psychology can also be applied to daily practice. As indicated in this article, Gestalt psychology can be used to solve problems and stimulate creativity. In addition, being aware of Gestalt principles helps us to understand how we perceive the world, how optical illusions work and to understand our own behavior.

Now it’s your turn

What do you think? Do you understand the explanation of Gestalt psychology? Do you recognize the principles in the way you perceive things yourself? Do you recognize Gestalt psychology in the way the people around you perceive the world? Is there any way you could apply Gestalt psychology in your work or study? Are there situations where you do not perceive objects or events as a whole? Do you have any comments or tips?

Share your knowledge and experience via the comment field at the bottom of this article.

If you found the article useful or practical for your own knowledge, please share it with your network. Thank you very much in advanced.


Does/will artificial intelligence displace human contact?


The way in which we have human contact with each other is changing. The qualitative growth spurt of artificially intelligent systems has an impact on multiple domains, including the way in which we will communicate in the future. This communication is not only from person to person, but also from person to machine and vice versa. I see 5 important trends in this landscape. I have listed them for you in this article.

1. More digitization

The first trend is that we will increasingly digitize contact. You already saw that with the rise of social media and smartphones. That line continues. Communicating quickly and asynchronously is convenient, easy and delivers enormous efficiency . We will communicate even more via digital channels.

In addition, we will also outsource tasks to artificially intelligent software systems. These are, for example, e-mail systems that respond to standard e-mail messages on your behalf. And for example Google Duplex-like systems , which can call you on a restaurant to make a reservation.

2. Man-Machine communication

This is how you optimally use social media monitoring [training]

Learn in this training how to get action-oriented insights and gauge the impact of campaigns.We as people are also going to communicate more with artificially intelligent software around us. In many different ways. For example, more and more of the predictable part of our human interaction is being taken over by artificially intelligent systems.

In short: where conversations are still taking place via a decision tree (a standard structure), artificially intelligent assistants can increasingly take over. Think of an intake interview that almost always follows the same pattern or a standardized registration for an event. Conversation is increasingly becoming the domain of artificially intelligent software.

Not unimportant: human voices are also easier to imitate (see the video below). In the future, artificial voices can no longer be distinguished from real ones. Then an AI system takes over part of a conversation. You already notice that when you call a call center. The first three questions generally reach you via a computer voice. This will be expanded more and more in the future.

And I also say nothing new when I claim that in the future we will increasingly communicate with digital assistants such as Alexa, Siri and Google Home. These systems become smarter and can evoke empathy and interest better in their responses. Some people will experience feelings of friendship with their digital assistant in the future, because they are always interested, always available and never seek conflict or give nasty feedback. For some people this contact will be sufficient because they sometimes find human contact unpleasant. Many experience stress and are easily hurt or worry about it for a long time afterwards. An AI system can be more pleasant for them.

3. Human contact as a luxury product

Because we are increasingly digitizing interaction and communication, human contact is becoming scarce. That will be a luxury product, certainly in contact with companies. After all, what you can digitize becomes cheaper. And everything that cannot be digitized therefore has value. Human contact, intimacy, attention, concentration, face-to-face conversations. Again: everything that cannot be digitized and scaled has value. And because it will be a luxury product, it will no longer be available to everyone.

I do sometimes wonder: if human contact is increasingly being digitized and in many cases is being cut away, do we not deprive ourselves and the younger generation in particular of the training material for developing and maintaining social skills? On the contrary, do we learn to expand and value our social skills in the physical world, in the conversation at the checkout, in the store and at the station?

4. Insights with voice analytics

If we look at human contact and communication through the lens of artificial intelligence, we see under the radar that companies (through our ancient drive to communicate continuously) can collect huge amounts of data about our human needs and behavior. As a result, they understand better who we are, what we do, why we do it, what we find important and how we feel.

Certainly if you consider that we are giving more and more voice commands to the devices around us, that our voice is being recorded at call centers to train machines and that companies are using our recorded voice to unleash artificially intelligent analyzes. Then a new dimension is added to what companies know about us: speech analysis.

They record our voice and analyze the speed of speech, volume, pauses, stress, possibly dialect and vocabulary. Then they know how to distil hidden information about our behavior, identity, emotions, appearance and in the future our mental health.

That may seem like the future, but it certainly isn’t. Basic emotions such as joy, anger, sadness or fear can easily be detected by the larger software vendors in this area. That which human ears cannot hear is audible for artificially intelligent software. And these systems can carry out the analyzes with great precision.


One of the risks is that this type of voice analysis software is used for telephone applications, and that it can then find out whether you are overweight or depressed, for example. Or imagine that you call the roadside assistance when your car breaks down and that the software then registers that you have drunk alcohol. Do we get a box on the table during a job interview, police interview or performance interview that measures our emotions and nervousness?

That is not my only concern. Sometimes I also worry that we will replace really important human contact with interaction with artificially intelligent software. In this context, by the way, this is the last, fifth development that I want to emphasize.

5. Artificial contact

For example, if Alexa gets more and more opportunities and responds more and more extensively and sometimes with more empathy, how is that going to affect our human interaction? Are we going to give the lonely seniors a digital emergency phone that fulfills their need for contact? Not unthinkable, by the way: Alexa can already read the news, tell sports results, come up with riddles, puzzle together, tell a story and make jokes. Are we, just as we sometimes give children a smartphone or iPad to have our hands free, do the same with the senior citizen part of our society? Such an experiment is already underway in South Korea .

And what about the friendship apps, in which artificially intelligent software is built in at the back? Chat apps such as Replika with which you can talk and promise your digital friendship. 24 hours a day, never rejecting, always listening. No matter how often you want to talk about your broken relationship, deceased partner or dismissal, you never get the feeling that you are a nag …Again, for part of our society, artificial intelligence might be a good solution to all the stress and discomfort that occurs during the uncomfortable process of human contact. Or should people not be given the opportunity to isolate themselves in a surrogate form of communication? Is it precisely in the inconvenience the opportunity to learn and thus discover the real key of happiness? (In my opinion: being able to embrace discomfort as an essential part of our human life.)

Consequences for love

Another thing: the Tinder algorithms look for the most suitable partner for us. We only have to open our phone and a new friend is in principle available. Does that lead to us accepting less discomfort in a relationship because a new friend is literally within reach? That Tinder offers an escape route when things are not going well in a relationship? Do dating apps give us so much choice that we automatically set the bar unreal for a partner and therefore almost always remain unhappy ? We continue to doubt our current relationships for longer, because there is always a chance that a nicer partner with a swipecan be found and accessed via an artificially intelligent dating app? Is the accessible availability of hundreds of potential new partners a blessing or a curse?

The real future of human contact

-It remains an interesting domain: the future of human contact and communication viewed through the lens of artificial intelligence. What I think we should not forget in this discussion is how unique we are as humans. We can make real contact with each other because we have a soul, a form of consciousness. Machines do not have that and I think they will never get it. We connect with our humanity, our consciousness, our heart and our soul. And as far as I am concerned, there lies the real future of human contact, in the midst of a world that is increasingly dominated by artificially intelligent systems.


Get Pioneers Included when Conveying Authoritative Change to Workers

FacebooktwitterredditpinterestlinkedinmailEvery organization, including yours, experiences change. Even if you aren’t currently undergoing a layoff, reorganization, merger, acquisition, outsourcing or big shift in benefits, you probably will be in the near future.

When that time comes, will your senior leaders be on the front line of change? Or will they delegate communicating the change to you?

The answer to those two questions can make or break a change project. Your change efforts are more likely to be successful if leaders—from the CEO to VP’s—are actively involved.

But how can you prepare your leaders to embrace their critical role in supporting change? Try these five tips to build your change communication strategy.

1. Make sure Senior Leaders Know their Roles

Your CEO probably understands his role, but the leaders who report to him—and the VP’s on the next level—may not see themselves as key change communicators. You need to set those expectations by bringing together these senior leaders to not only provide an overview of an upcoming change, but to emphasize how important it is that they meet with employees to explain the change. Then provide a leader communication guide that further explains their role, and give them essential tools to fulfill that role, including key messages and frequently asked questions.

2. Ensure that Leaders Truly Understand the Change

Often VP’s and unit leaders know what’s changing, but don’t get the full extent of the organization-wide implications. Make sure leaders have an opportunity to learn what’s changing, where and when; this is best done through a face-to-face session with senior management.


3. Show Leaders how People Experience Change Communication

When key decisions have not yet been finalized and leaders don’t know what they should be communicating, they’ll often stop.

Consider organizing an interactive session for the company’s top 100 leaders to help them understand why employees need contact, even if definitive information isn’t available. Have your CEO explain the change, then break the audience out into teams and have them brainstorm questions they think employees may have. If you have enough time, you might also want to have senior leaders answer some of the key questions generated. This exercise gives participants a way to express their questions and concerns by channeling employees.

Just as important, give leaders help with questions they won’t be able to answer. In some cases, the answer is not yet known; in others, it can’t be shared. Regardless, coach leaders on sample responses to all questions, including what to say about rumors or when someone expresses anxiety.


4. Provide Leaders with Easy-to-use Tools

During times of change, leaders have less time than ever. So they need a toolkit that contains key messages and facts, a presentation deck and answers to FAQs. Consider creating a mobile-compatible change communication micro site for leaders.That way they can access all the tools right from their tablets or smartphones.

5. Use Clear Language when Communicating Change

Don’t use clichés or slogans—employees can spot “corporate speak.” Be open, be honest, and most importantly, be respectful. Employees will remember how change is communicated to those most impacted and will see it as a sign of how your company values all its staff.

Leading change is never easy, but by equipping leaders with the help they need, they—and the organization—will be set up for success.


Change Communication tips for Leaders



Think only about the information you need to share.

Focus on the employee perspective.

Use specific examples of what employees need to do differently to help the company succeed.

Deliver a message once, then expect everyone to “get it.”

Consistency and repetition are key. By the time you’re ready to tell employees about a change, you’ve probably been working with the issue for months. But employees are hearing it for the first time, so they need to hear the message multiple times to truly get it.

Do all the talking.

Listen. Letting people give voice to their anxieties has been proven by researchers to release tension.

Get irritated when hearing a question you’ve answered many times before.

Be patient even if you don’t feel that way. How well leaders answer questions can mean the difference between encouraging employees to speak freely and shutting people down. And remember, just because you’ve heard a question before doesn’t mean the employee asking has.

Become defensive when someone asks a tough question.

Answer difficult questions openly and honestly. If you don’t know all the details, it’s OK to say, “I don’t know,” but make sure to tell employees you’ll give them the rest of the information as soon as possible.Facebooktwitterredditpinterestlinkedinmail

How to develop an action plan for bigger success


  • What is an action plan?
  • What are the criteria for a good action plan?
  • Why should you develop an action plan?
  • When should you develop an action plan?
  • How to write an action plan

What is an action plan?

In some ways, an action plan is a “heroic” act: it helps us turn our dreams into a reality. An action plan is a way to make sure your organization’s vision is made concrete. It describes the way your group will use its strategies to meet its objectives. An action plan consists of a number of action steps or changes to be brought about in your community.

Each action step or change to be sought should include the following information:

  • What actions or changes will occur
  • Who will carry out these changes
  • By when they will take place, and for how long
  • What resources (i.e., money, staff) are needed to carry out these changes
  • Communication (who should know what?)

What are the criteria for a good action plan?

The action plan for your initiative should meet several criteria.

Is the action plan:

  • Complete? Does it list all the action steps or changes to be sought in all relevant parts of the community (e.g., schools, business, government, faith community)?
  • Clear? Is it apparent who will do what by when?
  • Current? Does the action plan reflect the current work? Does it anticipate newly emerging opportunities and barriers?

Why should you develop an action plan?

There is an inspirational adage that says, “People don’t plan to fail. Instead they fail to plan.” Because you certainly don’t want to fail, it makes sense to take all of the steps necessary to ensure success, including developing an action plan.

There are lots of good reasons to work out the details of your organization’s work in an action plan, including:

  • To lend credibility to your organization. An action plan shows members of the community (including grant makers) that your organization is well ordered and dedicated to getting things done.
  • To be sure you don’t overlook any of the details
  • To understand what is and isn’t possible for your organization to do
  • For efficiency: to save time, energy, and resources in the long run
  • For accountability: To increase the chances that people will do what needs to be done

When should you create an action plan?

Ideally, an action plan should be developed within the first six months to one year of the start of an organization. It is developed after you have determined the vision, mission, objectives, and strategies of your group. If you develop an action plan when you are ready to start getting things done, it will give you a blueprint for running your organization or initiative.

Remember, though, that an action plan is always a work in progress. It is not something you can write, lock in your file drawers, and forget about. Keep it visible. Display it prominently. As your organization changes and grows, you will want to continually (usually monthly) revise your action plan to fit the changing needs of your group and community.

How to write an action plan

Determine what people and sectors of the community should be changed and involved in finding solutions

If you have been using the VMOSA (Vision, Mission, Objectives, Strategies, Action Plans) model, you might have already done this, when you were deciding upon your group’s objectives. Again, try to be inclusive. Most of the health and development issues that community partnerships deal with are community-wide, and thus need a community-wide solution. Possible sectors include the media, the business community, religious organizations, schools, youth organizations, social service organizations, health organizations, and others.

Some members of the community you might consider asking to join the action planning group include:

  • Influential people from all the parts of the community affected by your initiative (e.g., from churches and synagogues, the school system, law enforcement, etc.)
  • People who are directly involved in the problem (e.g., local high school students and their parents might be involved in planning a coalition trying to reduce teen substance abuse)
  • Members of grassroots organizations
  • Members of the various ethnic and cultural groups in your community
  • People you know who are interested in the problem or issue
  • Newcomers or young people in the community who are not yet involved

Let’s consider some of the people who were involved with the planning group for the fictional Reducing the Risks (R.T.R) Coalition that hopes to reduce the rate of teen pregnancy. Some of the members of this planning group included teachers at the local high school, local teenagers and their parents, members of the clergy, counselors and school nurses, staff of the county health department, and members of youth organizations, service agencies, and other organizations that focus on youth issues.

Convene a planning group in your community to design your action plan. This might be the same group of people who worked with you to decide your group’s strategies and objectives. If you are organizing a new group of people, try to make your planning committee as diverse and inclusive as possible. Your group should look like the people most affected by the problem or issue.

Once everyone is present, go over your organization’s:

  • Vision
  • Mission
  • Objectives
  • Strategies
  • Targets and agents of change (e.g., youth, parents and guardians, clergy)
  • Proposed changes for each sector of the community (e.g., schools, faith community, service organizations, health organizations, government)

Develop an action plan composed of action steps that address all proposed changes. The plan should be complete, clear, and current. Additionally, the action plan should include information and ideas you have already gathered while brainstorming about your objectives and your strategies. What are the steps you must take to carry out your objectives while still fulfilling your vision and mission? Now it’s time for all of the VMOSA components to come together. While the plan might address general goals you want to see accomplished, the action steps will help you determine the specific actions you will take to help make your vision a reality. Here are some guidelines to follow to write action steps.

Members of the community initiative will want to determine:

  • What action or change will occur
  • Who will carry it out
  • When it will take place, and for how long
  • What resources (i.e., money, staff) are needed to carry out the change
  • Communication (who should know what)

Things to note about this portion of the RTR action plan:

  • It appears complete. Although this step seems fully developed, we would need to review the entire action plan to see whether all community and system changes that should be sought are included.
  • It is clear. We know who will do what by when.
  • It seems current. We would need to know more about other current work (and new opportunities and barriers) to judge whether this portion of the action plan is up-to-date.

Review your completed action plan carefully to check for completeness. Make sure that each proposed change will help accomplish your group’s mission. Also, be sure that the action plan taken as a whole will help you complete your mission; that is, make sure you aren’t leaving anything out.

Follow through. One hard part (figuring out what to do) is finished. Now take your plan and run with it! Remember the 80-20 rule: successful efforts are 80% follow through on planned actions and 20% planning for success.

Keep everyone informed about what’s going on. Communicate to everyone involved how his or her input was incorporated. No one likes to feel like her wit and wisdom has been ignored.

Keep track of what (and how well) you’ve done. Always keep track of what the group has actually done. If the community change (a new program or policy) took significant time or resources, it’s also a good idea to evaluate what you have done, either formally or informally.

Keep several questions in mind for both yourself and others:

  • Are we doing what we said we’d do?
  • Are we doing it well?
  • Is what we are doing advancing the mission?

You can address these questions informally (ask yourself, chat with friends and other people), as well as formally, through surveys and other evaluation methods.

Celebrate a job well done! Celebrate your accomplishments; you and those you work with deserve it. Celebration helps keep everyone excited and interested in the work they are doing.

After you’ve written your action plan: Getting members to do what they said they would

Every community organization has undoubtedly had this happen: you plan and you assign tasks to get everything you’ve planned to do accomplished. Everyone agrees (maybe they even offer) to do certain tasks, and you all leave with a great feeling of accomplishment. The problem? At the next meeting, nothing has been done. Besides tearing out your hair, what can you do?

Fortunately, there are several things you can try. It’s particularly tricky in the case of volunteers, because you don’t want to lean too hard on someone who is donating their time and energy to begin with. Still, you can make it easier for members to get things done (and harder to avoid work) without acting like the mean neighbor down the street. Some of these gentle reminders include:

  • Regular phone calls from staff members or dedicated volunteers asking others how they are doing with their tasks. This should be a supportive call, not a “are you doing what you’re supposed to” call. The person calling can offer emotional support “how are you doing?” as well as see if the group member needs any other assistance. A friendly call such as this can be seen as helpful, give the member the sense that he is a very important part of the group, and serve as a great reminder to do what he said he would do.
  • Distributing the action plan in writing to all members, with names attached to specific tasks. (Additionally, this can be a great time to ask for feedback before the plan becomes “official.”)
  • Making sure timelines (with due dates) are complete, clear and current.
  • At regular group meetings, such as committee meetings or board meetings, ask members to report on accomplishing the tasks they have set out to do. Consider making this a regular part of the meeting.
  • Celebrate the accomplishment of tasks. It’s important that getting something done actually means something, and is recognized by the group as a whole.

Follow up on the action plan regularly. You are asking members to be accountable, and to get things done on a regular basis. If they have agreed, you should help them fulfill their commitment as best you can.Facebooktwitterredditpinterestlinkedinmail

What Is The Importance of Fantastic Teamwork

FacebooktwitterredditpinterestlinkedinmailWhether in the workplace or on the football field, or even amongst members of a community, effective teamwork can produce incredible results. However, working successfully as a team is not as easy as it may seem. Effective teamwork certainly does not just happen automatically; it takes a great deal of hard work and compromise. There are a number of factors that must be in place to cohere together as a team and work seamlessly.

Good leadership:

Effective leadership is one of the most important components of good teamwork. The team’s leader should possess the skills to create and maintain a positive working environment and motivate and inspire the team members to take a positive approach to work and be highly committed. An effective team leader will promote a high level of morale and make them feel supported and valued.

Clear communication:

Communication is a vital factor of all interpersonal interaction and especially that of a team. Team members must be able to articulate their feelings, express plans and goals, share ideas and see each other’s viewpoints.
Establishing roles:

It is absolutely necessary for team members to understand what their role on the team is, what he/she is responsible for. The team leader can enable this by defining the purpose in a clear-cut manner in the beginning of the formation of the team.

Conflict Resolution:

Conflicts will arise no matter how well a team functions together. The best way to counter conflict is to have structured methods of conflict resolution. Team members should be able to voice their concerns without fear of offending others. Instead of avoiding conflict issues, a hands-on approach that resolves them quickly is much better. It is often advised that the team leader sit with the conflicting parties and help work out their differences without taking sides and trying to remain objective if possible.

• Set a good example:

The team leader must set a good example for good teamwork to come about. In order to keep team members positive and committed and motivated, the team leader herself/himself needs to exhibit these qualities. The team looks to the leader for support and guidance so any negativity on the leader’s part can be disastrous.

Regardless of what type of sales you are in, you may one day be asked to be part of a team sales effort, and knowing how to effectively work on and with a team is going to be crucial to your success and that of your team.


Social Media Messaging Market – Global Industry Analysis, Forecast 2016 – 2023

FacebooktwitterredditpinterestlinkedinmailSocial Media Messaging Market: Overview Social media messaging is a communication medium integrated with social networking platforms. Social media offers a platform to share information, news, and tr…

Social Media Messaging Market: Overview

Social media messaging is a communication medium integrated with social networking platforms. Social media offers a platform to share information, news, and trends with your connections across the globe. Social media messaging is an instant messaging service which helps to connect with the people including friends, colleagues, and others in a better way than conventional messaging. In social media messaging services, message can be presented in multiple formats including, text, voice, photos, and videos.

Currently, companies are primarily focused on social media messaging services to advertise their products and increase brand awareness. In addition, social media messaging provides a platform for lifelogging, payments, gaming, media, and other services.

Social Media Messaging Market: Trends and Growth Propellers

In the past decade, communication has changed from conventional text to multimedia messaging. The increasing internet penetration plays a key role in the rapid growth of social media messaging. The penetration of various messaging services is increasing over the time due to advancement in mobile data network technologies such as 4G, and 5G provided by internet service providers.

Furthermore, the cost of social media messaging is much lower than conventional messaging services provided by mobile operators. Thus, a consumer prefers social media messaging service over conventional messaging. In addition, companies are using social media messaging services to increase brand awareness about their products and services.

Governments across the world focus on monitoring social media messaging services to keep track of erupting political movements, crises, and epidemics in unlawful activities. Likewise, social media messaging companies are introducing innovative design, and transformation in messaging platforms to increase the adoption. These factors are expected to drive social media messaging market over the forecast period. However, increasing inappropriate messages, and false information are affecting the transparency of the social media messaging. Furthermore, lack of internet penetration and unavailability of technology in a number of developing regions is expected to impede the growth of social media messaging.

Social Media Messaging Market: Segmentation

The social media messaging market is segmented by platform, message type, age group, and geography. By platform type, the social media messaging market is segmented into web application based, and mobile application based messaging. By message type, this market is segmented into instant messaging, and non-instant messaging. Based on the use of social messaging, social media messaging market is segmented by age group into 18 – 29, 30 – 49, and above 50.

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On the basis of geography, the social media messaging market is segmented into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East and Africa. Among these regions, North America and Europe have been witnessing high growth in the social media messaging due to high internet penetration, improved mobile technologies such as 5G, and adoption of social media platforms.

However, Asia Pacific and Middle East & Africa are expected to see large scale adoption of social media messaging in the coming years. This is primarily due to increasing awareness of social media messaging applicationsArticle Submission, and adoption of social networking platforms and services led by slow but steady growth in internet penetration.quickmoveFacebooktwitterredditpinterestlinkedinmail