Social Interaction Theory


This article explains Bales ‘s social interaction theory in a practical way. After reading you will understand the basics of this powerful communication and coaching tool.

Social interaction

What is Social Interaction Theory?

Social Interaction Theory, also known as Social Interaction Systems Theory, was developed by Robert Freed Bales. Bales was a pioneer in Harvard University’s Social Relations Department at the time. The project from which this theory emerged was intended to develop an integrative framework for social psychology. This had to be based on the social interaction process, supplemented with value analyzes on the content of the interaction. Bales believed that this personal approach goes far beyond the classic experimental approach to group dynamics study.

Systematic Multiple Level Observation of Groups (SYMLOG)
As part of the research, Bales developed SYMLOG. This stands for Systematic Multiple Level Observation of Groups. The SYMLOG Consulting Group’s approach and operations were interactive and global. Among other things, it created a database that made it possible to search for connections between human interaction that went much further than previously known.

In the research prior to the publication of social interaction theory, the fundamental boundaries of the field were established, and the criteria for behavior for leaders and followers. To this end, Bales offers a new field theory. The new field theory is a reappraisal of the many contexts in which people live. Bales did not strive to reduce differences, but to understand them. He further emphasized that demental processes of individuals and social interaction take place in systematic contexts that can be measured. This allows behavior to be explained and predicted more accurately than in the past.

Interaction Process Analysis

Interaction Process Analysis is a term that describes a collection of methods that have evolved over the last twenty years. The methods take different forms and have been invented, borrowed and reinvented or improved. What the theories have in common is that it is based on first-hand observation of social interaction in small groups.

In addition to social interaction theory, Robert Bales also developed his Interaction Process Analysis. An observer was asked to record the actions and reactions of each of the group members in one of twelve categories. The categories were broken down as follows:

Shows solidarity . The person being observed raises the status of others, helps others, and gives rewards or compliments to others.

Decreases tension . The person being observed smiles, is relaxed, shows satisfaction or makes a joke.

Shows agreement . The person being observed shows acceptance, understanding or compliance with rules.

Provides suggestions . The person being observed gives directions to others, implies autonomy from others and is independent.

Gives opinion . The person being observed gives his or her opinion, shares analyzes with the rest of the group, shares feelings or wishes / demands.

Provides orientation . The person being observed gives information to others, repeats important things, confirms or clarifies when this is desired.

Requires orientation . The person being observed asks for information, or asks for confirmation or repetition when desired.

Asks for opinion . The person being observed asks for evaluations, analyzes or expressions of the feelings of others.

Asks for suggestions . The person being observed asks for direction or alternative options for action.

Agrees with this . The person being observed shows rejection or withholding help.

Shows tension . The person being observed asks for help or withdraws from the situation.

Shows antagonism . The observed person deflates the status of others and often defends his or her own.

Group roles in the Three Dimensional Space or Interpersonal Personality model

Bales was convinced that a person relies on their own personal observation of themselves and others in the group to get a clear picture of what an effective team member is. For example, a group member cannot be too far behind the work and natural flow of events, otherwise his or her participation will suffer. To describe these factors, Bales developed the Three Dimensional Space of Interpersonal Personality model in addition to the social interaction theory. This model describes both the value of someone for the group and the meaning of someone for the group. The type of role a person has is distinguished by the perception and evaluation of others in the group. These perceptions and evaluations are linked to behavior or the position someone is in.

Does he or she get a lot of people to laugh?

Does it look like she or he will rank high on leadership?
Does he or she seem to get a lot of interaction from others?
Does he or she seem to find himself entertaining?
Does he or she consider themselves a good person?
Does he or she seem to have a general trust in others?
Do you like him or her?

The answers to these questions together usually form a personality type. The answers provide a good insight into the discrepancies in someone’s behavior. Characteristics of a personality that are determined are not actually characteristics of the individual as such, but characteristics of the person in the role of the individual in a particular group. To understand the behavior of an individual in a group, it is essential to distinguish between permanent and personal traits of a person and those that are only displayed in a group role. To determine the personality of someone on a team, the entire group must be observed and how other group members rate the individual.

6 main roles

The Three Dimensional Space of Interpersonal Personality model is published in the book SYMLOG: A System for the Multiple Level Observation of Groups. This model begins by setting out the six main roles. These are:

Dominant (upward)
Checked (forward)
Friendly (positive)
Submissive (downward)
Emotionally expressive (backward)
Unfriendly (negative)
Associated properties

The model also contains the corresponding characteristics of the previously described main roles. These characteristics are:

Task leader
Happy to be with others

Role types and combinations of social interaction theory
The roles and characteristics mentioned above are used to identify the connections, networks and coalitions between different groups. Each type has a different combination of characteristics. The differentiating factor of the different types is based on the other characteristics associated with a person.

Type U is an active and talkative, powerful personality on the road to success and power. Type UP appears to be socially outgoing, friendly, positive and on the way to social success above all. Type UPF is friendly, value-oriented and a real task leader. He or she is on the road to solidarity and progress. Type UF is a person with strong leadership qualities, task oriented and evolving towards collaboration. Type UNF is dominant, morally superior and unfriendly. Type UB is non-task oriented, expressive and confident. He or she is also rebellious, aggressive and on the road to stubborn assertiveness. Type UPB is warm, affectionate, and moves toward warmth and emotional support to others.

Assuming different roles in social interactions according to social interaction theory
The first part of this article defined different roles and how people’s behavior can change when they work in groups. This section is mainly about how people assume different roles in everyday life.

Social interaction based on different roles happens almost automatically. A role is fulfilled without the person thinking about it. This is also the reason why social interaction is so accessible. If everyone always had to think before taking on a role, social interaction would become very slow, tedious and full of mistakes.

Suppose in a random store, an employee asks a customer how much he earns per month. You might expect such a personal question from a close friend, as discussions about personal matters are part of the roles befitting friends, but this is not expected from a store associate.

As the example above illustrates, social interaction relies in part on background assumptions or understanding the roles expected of people in different contexts. If this understanding of different roles is violated, the social order can easily be disrupted.

Sociologist Garfinkel explained that unexpected events such as those described above make the social order very vulnerable. He explains that people are constantly constructing the social environment in which they find themselves. To make his point, he had some of his students conduct experiments. Below was the assignment for students to behave like strangers in their own parents’ homes. It should come as no surprise that most parents are quick to wonder what college did to their kids.

Social interaction theory is thus mainly concerned with the fact that the social order is highly socially constructed. It’s exactly what people make of it when interacting with each other. Sociologists call this the social construction of reality. Although most people find themselves in situations where views are shared about what is to come, actors continue to define the situation and thus construct reality.

Roles and the influence on personalities
Thus, as described above, different roles help to construct the social order. However, taking on different roles has another effect. It may be that a personality is influenced / formed by this. The idea is that when people assume a new role, the expectations of that role can change the way we interact with others. It can also change the way we see and treat ourselves.

An example of this comes from Professor Kirkham, a criminal law professor in the United States. During his classes, Kirkham was critical of the harshness with which the police treated suspects. One of the police officers present in his class commented that Kirkham could not say such a thing because he did not know what it was like to be a police officer. They challenged him to do basic police training. After closing the base distraction, Kirkham walked out with a few cops. During the first shift they were asked to go to a cafe where a drunken man was causing trouble. Kirkham asked the man if he could go outside. Instead of listening, the wheel-turner slapped Kirkham on the face. In another event, they were called to a situation where bystanders were threatening to stand around their car. Kirkham took out a weapon to keep bystanders at bay. He later said about this that as a professor he would judge the officer he had become for his behavior. In a short space of time, Kirkham had turned from a nice professor to a serious cop. His role had thus changed, and probably also his personality to a small extent. In any case, his views are. His role had thus changed, and probably also his personality to a small extent. In any case, his views are. His role had thus changed, and probably also his personality to a small extent. In any case, his views are.

Now it’s your turn

What do you think? Do you recognize the explanation of the social interaction theory? Can you give an example of a situation where social order was disrupted? Do you have trouble taking on different roles, or is it automatic? What do you think is important when interacting with others? Can you share tips for people who have trouble interacting with others? Do you have any tips or comments about this article?
Share your knowledge and experience via the comment field at the bottom of this article.

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Hey How are you there …

Okay, we'll stay in until I don't know when.
Really depends on the situation / circumstances.
Everything changes.
You have no influence on many things.

You might be watching the news all day.
Try to find something on social media.
But because you don't know exactly what, you keep scrolling.
You are stressing yourself over things that you have no influence on.
Hoping you recognize it when you see it.
Maybe it's a good time to stop scrolling.

How are you?
What have you discovered about yourself in recent days?

Where are you:

1. Disappointment / Anxiety -Why
2. Acceptance - Nothing can be done
3. Embrace - What an opportunity!
The faster you are in embrace, the sooner you will be ahead again.

This is it.

See it as it is, not as it should be.
(then there was no war, famine and chocolate made you slim and intelligent).
This is not tra la la science.
Get deeper into various skills during this period. Try to solve long drawn-out cases. You can do so much without feeling trapped.

In this COVID-19 quarantine time, look for new things and embrace them for later.
The world will never be the same as before the outbreak of COVID-19.
And right now it is important to move with it.

Speed ​​is everything now.

Whatever you do, remember
- Even if we are in quarantine, you are not alone
- Although the environment is now uncertain and miserable, you will find guidance in your own perseverance, resourcefulness and character.
- Even though everything is now chaos, know that every order always creates new order
Be strong.

Show who you are.

This is your chance.
In the meantime, I will continue to provide you with inspiration, love and positivity.

Greeting from
The Caribbean Blog Authority

This is how you deal with situations in which you seem to have no influence


Image result for impossible possible

Colleagues who are always late, decisions taken from above: we all have to deal with circumstances at work that we seem to have no influence on. Please as a blogger allow me to explain how to handle this properly. You can do it your way as well.

There is a saying: Change what you cannot accept and accept what you cannot change . That all sounds great, but how do you do that now, accept something that you cannot change? If we could do this easily, we would have done it for a long time.

Management assistants in particular often feel very involved in their work. As a result, they have difficulty accepting circumstances beyond their control. Involvement is a personal value, but it can also be a core value, and therefore comes from within.

We also have a heart for the business. If, for example, we see that certain things are happening that are detrimental to the clients or the quality of our work and we have no influence on this, then it is difficult to accept this.

Involvement is therefore a beautiful characteristic, but it is precisely because of this characteristic that we have extra difficulty dealing with circumstances at work that we have no influence on.

Yet there is a way in which we can deal with such circumstances at work.

Focus on what is possible

Take a look at what is possible and therefore on which part of the circumstance we do have influence. On which part or parts of the problem, the situation or the circumstance do we have any influence? Whatever the circumstances are, there is almost always something that we do have influence on.

Let me give an example. Suppose there is a threat of dismissal for you. Whether or not we ultimately get fired, we have no influence on that. But what we do influence is the execution of our work. If we do that well, the chance is always slightly greater that we can stay than if we throw the cap at it. But also by requesting a meeting with our supervisor and indicating that we are prepared to follow courses or training, or that we are open to any other position. At the same time, we can look around for another job in the meantime.

By focusing on what we do influence, we opt for proactive action instead of reactive action. As a result, we no longer feel like a victim, because we take control and responsibility for what we do have influence on.

Start the conversation

But what about the behavior of, for example, a colleague? Suppose a colleague arrives late for work every morning. Whether this colleague arrives at work on time or not, we have no influence on that. However, what we can do is start a conversation about this. Then we can first state what the facts are, namely that we have noticed that he / she regularly comes late in the morning. We can then indicate that we are affected by this and ask how we can deal with this in the future.

By starting a conversation, we regain control and act proactively. If we really listen to this colleague, it may just be that we are told what the reason is for being late. Then we can talk about possible solutions, such as other working hours. If we then work this out together, this can be presented to our supervisor. By speaking out and entering into a conversation, we do have an influence on the behavior of others.

Decisions from above

But what if it concerns something definitive, such as a decision that has already been taken by higher authorities? Even then we can always enter into a conversation with the relevant people. In this case, therefore, with the management or the board. Then we can indicate that we think it is a shame that these decisions were taken from above, without being involved in this. That we also have ideas about this and that we think it is a shame that this has not been requested, and that these ideas could therefore not be included in the decision-making process.

That does not mean that something will actually be done with it, but we have at least given our opinion on this. We always have an influence on what we say and against whom. So also in this case we take control and act proactively by speaking.

Just think of the consequences if we don’t do this. Suppose we act and think reactively: the decision has already been made. What if we do not speak out against the right people? There is a good chance that we will then express our dissatisfaction with the wrong people. Because if we have something high, we still want to get rid of it. Then we can speak better to the right people, even though this is the top of the organization, for example.

Let go in mini steps

If we have done everything about the things that we can influence, how do we let go of the things that we really have no influence on?

By constantly looking at how we can let go of something 1 percent. By looking at what we need to be able to let go of this a little bit. A mini step. What we focus our attention on is growing. If we focus on how we can let go of something a little, it will become easier and easier for us.

Finally the following. It is not what we want to hear, but often we can learn from circumstances that are not going well. Just think of previous experiences in your life that you have not experienced as pleasant. You have probably learned a lot from this. As a result, we often know what we no longer want.

If every day or moment you are able to reflect in your very own surroundings you can learn a lot more.Not difficult right.


5 proven reasons why investing in external presentation pays off

Image result for style dressing for men and women

Common sense dictates it already, but research also shows: being well dressed influences your professional success in all sorts of ways. Let me please give examples .

Are you aware of clothing? Or do you put on an outfit for work that is especially practical and comfortable? Because yes, I hear you say: “Isn’t it about my qualities and what I can do? Isn’t success in clothing? Isn’t clothing a matter of taste? “

Your qualities are of course important. Being good in your profession is a precondition for being successful. And of course taste and personal preferences play a role in your clothing choice. But also know that with clothing and color you express how you want to look and what you want to radiate.

Clothing tells a story and is therefore an important and powerful means of communication in the business context. In this article I will discuss five reasons why it is important to pay attention to your appearance.

1. The visual image helps to make a good first impression

In many situations, but certainly in the business working environment, making a good first impression is important. Much has been written about the first impression and how it comes about. An often cited study is that of the American scientist Albert Mehrabian. According to the professor of psychology, communication takes place for the most part through body language (visual, 55 percent) and voice (vocal, 38 percent), and only 7 percent through what someone says (verbally).

In other words: the visual image and the tone of your voice have more impact on how you are perceived than what you say. Your external presentation, your packaging, is therefore an important part for the first impression. Make use of this, because clothing and accessories are things that you can influence yourself.

The first impression is also very important for the impressions that follow. If the first impression is positive, other positive traits are automatically attributed to a person. For that reason it is important to reflect on how you come across to others and how to deal with this consciously. Clothing is one of the tools that you can use for this.

2. Well dressed enhances your credibility

You may have already experienced that you are approached differently if you are dressed in a nice business dress than if you are wearing jeans with worn-out sneakers. There is connection , various research results on this connection between well-dressed and being taken seriously are included. For example, it has become apparent that managers are more likely to take advice from consultants who are dressed in expensive suits. An expensive suit is a symbol of higher social status and seniority.

Of course, this does not mean that you will only be seen or heard in luxury, exclusive clothing, but that it is important to dress well and representative (for your position). Paying attention to your outward presentation is always appreciated. If you want to convince someone or believe in you, it helps if you dress appropriately and appropriately. A stylish package sells your content.

3. Well dressed increases your expert status

With clothing you provide information about your status. People perceive you based on what they see, hear and experience. Who are you, what do you want to radiate and what do you show this in your outer presentation? Are you the expert in your field? Are you the management assistant for whom quality and accuracy are of paramount importance? Show this in your appearance and choose clothing that matches this image and your ambition.

4. Attractiveness influences the amount of your salary

That there is a connection between the level of salary and attractiveness, is known to many people. ‘Attractive’ people have higher salaries than ‘less attractive’ people who do the same work (source: Roos Vonk, De first impression ). What is found ‘attractive’ is related to the external characteristics of a person, such as facial characteristics, height, weight and shape of the posture. You have little or no influence on this.

On clothing and external care, however. That this may be relevant, according to an American study conducted by sociologists Jaclyn Wong and Andrew Penner. These researchers emphasize the importance of good external presentation and care, especially for women. Their research showed that it is especially worthwhile for women to invest in appearance. For example, women who pay more attention to their external presentation earn more money, regardless of how attractive they are. This is called the ‘attractiveness bonus’. So take advantage of this. Clothes make the woman, but also her salary.

5. Well dressed increases your confidence

The importance of clothing is of course not only in how you are perceived and how you can influence others with this. Clothing also has an effect on how you feel. Think, for example, of your wedding day when you were dressed in that beautiful dress or the moments when you dress specifically for an important conversation or presentation at work.

When you know that you are well dressed, you feel more confident. This influences your behavior, your performance and thus your (business) success. For example, research has shown that people work more carefully and with more attention when wearing a doctor’s coat. How you look at clothing, the associations you have with it, influence your behavior.

For the new year I want to inspire you to work on your outer presentation. Dressing yourself stylishly and appropriately helps you in your career and in your chances of success. So show your expert status in your professional appearance. This way you get a better view and you are optimally visible.

The Caribbean Blog Authority is wishing you a bling bling 2020.


The Three Pillars of Elite Performance


In recent years, more and more people talk and write about the mind-body connection.

How we literally influence the world around us, our health and our performance with our thoughts.
I am at least as much interested in the body-mind connection.
How you can influence your internal world with your body.

Your thoughts, your state of mind and your emotions.
Master both games and your life changes.
So much more control.
So much more influence.
And so extremely much better performance.

You need 3 pillars for elite performance:

  1. Clarity (what is the specific objective?)
  2. Focus (on that one thing that makes all the difference)
  3. Execution (a system for consistent, visible progression). All three points mentioned above, people might miss.
    Good news: without more work, you can probably get 3x to 10x more if you get this in order.
    More good news: you don’t have to do twice as much to double your results.
    It all seems extreme but can be done.
    With a good extreme mix of the three pillars you will understand more of this methodology, which is certainly experienced by each one differently.
    Imagine what it would mean for you if you would make this work to your daily advantage.
    A body and a mind that get 800% more done.
    Better thoughts. Better emotions. Extremely better productivity.

A day dedicated to living better and working better.
Get much more out of every day.
Not by working harder (because you already do that).
But by focusing on exponential processes.
It is time that you discover your secret weapons and give yourself a pitch. Do something about BIO-HACKING.




“Hey, Hello You at the back of the class stop day-dreaming and pay attention!” Which one of us did not hear that phrase repeated many times in our school days? . I can see you are laughing. Having dreams and aspirations is an essential part of any successful entrepreneur’s makeup. But what do they do to utilize the power of those dreams? This article gives you some tips on using visualization, to achieve your goals. First to be successful in business, you need to define your personal definition of success. What is success for you? Which goals do you need to reach to be successful?

Imagine trying to sell TV advertising, in the early days when most people had not seen a television. It must have happened, or we would not have had any commercial TV today. The sales people in those days used the art of visualization to sell the concept that “a picture is worth a thousand words”

The key word here is “imagine”! I want you to imagine, or indeed create a picture of what success means to you. Sitting on a sun kissed beach or playing round after round of golf whenever you want – just create that picture.

Making that “picture in your mind’s eye” a reality It was once said that a vision without corresponding action is a mirage – great to look at but unattainable.

First to be successful in business, you need to define your personal definition of success. What is success for you? Which goals do you need to reach to be successful?

Write them down, think about them, and visualize them.

Visualization is much more powerful than most people imagine. By nurturing a desired image in your mind repeatedly, you will allow yourself to be successful –easily and simply!

How to plan your objectives

In this positive frame of mind ask yourself exactly what it is that you do well. Check this with your best customers. Ask them how they see what you provide. Why do they like it, how would they describe the benefits of what it is you do. Finally ask them what image, your products and services, conjures up. You will find after doing this, you will have a common theme.

Does doing more of this help you achieve your goals?

Now set your objectives. They should be based on doing more of what you are good at, to reach your goals. The good news is, that having done the previous exercise, you know it will be in synch with what the market actually wants.

You need to set milestones, or short term goals to keep you honest as your plan progresses. The more you plan your objectives, the higher the chances of success. Objectives need to be realistic yet optimistic, quantifiable to be measured.

Fulfilling a strategy through visualization.

What you will now have done is connect a dream with reality, by setting out a set of actions or steps to help you get there. This is what the business gurus call a strategy. In reality it is a set of actionable steps, turning a dream or goal into reality.

There will be bits of the business that you just can’t do well. Don’t even try and do them, if you are not good at accounts, use an accountant. If you do not know how to market or sell, hire someone who can, if you can’t afford a full-time person, someone like 3R can help you.

There are times when you dream will go fuzzy, or out of focus, when things go wrong – don’t worry, go back to your imagination, get the image of success and focus on what did go well. It’s what the rich and famous did, and you probably already do a lot of, without knowing it!Facebooktwitterredditpinterestlinkedinmail

How To Win Friends And Influence People with The magic of blog writing

FacebooktwitterredditpinterestlinkedinmailWhen I started writing, I didn’t think of myself as a writer. I doubted my skills. I didn’t know whether I had enough ideas.

But every time I had to write an article, I learned more about writing. I followed my curiosity. I discovered what I’m passionate about, and I learned what resonated with my audience.

You might think you don’t have enough to share. Or you might doubt your writing skills.

This is what I’d like to tell you:

You’re unique. You have unique experiences. And you’ll discover your voice and your passions when you write more. Writing brings clarity, deepens your understanding, and strengthens your ideas.

So, commit to writing. To creating valuable content. To being helpful to your readers.

Start making tiny ripples.

That’s how change begins.Facebooktwitterredditpinterestlinkedinmail