How To Manage and Control Strategic Change (Tichy) in 2021

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This article explains Noel M. Tichy ‘s concept of managing strategic change in a practical way. After reading you’ll understand the fundamentals of this powerful change management tool .

Managing Strategic Change: Technical, Political, and Cultural Dynamics -  Noel M. Tichy - Google Books

What is Strategic Change Management

Strategic change involves critical implementations for companies trying to improve their competitiveness in the marketplace. It can be viewed as long-term projection decisions that are critically evaluated. Therefore, strategic change is about carefully examining various internal and external factors to make the right decisions.

Managing strategic change takes place during the implementation of the change. Noel M. Tichy , an American management consultant, educator and author of many books and wrote “Managing Strategic Change.” In this book, Tichy refers to managing strategic change through implementation of the TPC model. TPC stands for technical, political and cultural dynamics.

Tichy, the founder of the TPC model, argues that companies need to analyze the dynamics mentioned above if organizations want to manage strategic change. As a result of the evaluation of the technical, political and cultural dynamics of an organization, there is a good chance that companies will be able to answer strategic change-related questions, such as questions related to the industry in which the company operates and the values of employees.

Managing strategic change generally focuses on identifying organizational problems and challenges and identifying how they can be impacted so that the business benefits in the future. The dynamics identified by Tichy are interrelated, which are explained in more detail in the next section.

TPC Model of Managing Strategic Change

As explained earlier, managing strategic change can become successful through the integration of technical, political and cultural dynamics.

Technical dynamics
This dynamic of managing strategic change focuses on organizational structure and product portfolio issues. For example, increased global competition has made it easier for companies to learn and copy innovations. The result of global learning is that the demand for qualitative and competitively priced products is increasing. Companies that fail to keep up with industry developments need to recognize the need to change.

In addition to only product-related aspects, the technical dynamics of managing strategic change also focus on different organizational strategies. For example, after an internal evaluation of profitability, a company can determine that it focuses on a specific target group is not profitable. It can serve as an indicator to change the company’s strategic direction.

Political dynamics

The political dynamics of managing strategic change is an essential factor to evaluate. From a business perspective, this means applying resources to influence current and future political decisions. In addition, the political element is important because it often deals with pressures related to macro perspective problems.

Cultural dynamics
The cultural factor of managing strategic change generally focuses on norms and values that have not yet been discussed internally in the organization. Another view of cultural dynamics is to see the factor as external pressure for change due to different or changing values and beliefs of society. This external pressure to change may be related, for example, to equal employment opportunities that typically lead to a more diverse workforce.

Although the technical, political and cultural dynamics are factors that must be evaluated separately, the dynamics can influence each other according to Tichy. From a business perspective, companies should assess which element of the TPC model visualizes the most important development. The dynamics with the most development can be a trigger for change. However, this is easier said than done because all dynamics also bring a lot of uncertainty when it comes to how a factor might develop over time.

Companies must constantly evaluate and re-evaluate technical, political and cultural dynamics, as they represent the context from which the organization could change course and prioritize work.
Taken together, the dynamics represent problems that will come and go. Solving these problems may not be realistic, but companies are constantly dealing with these dynamics.
Managing strategic change
To manage strategic change, it is first essential to understand an organizational structure. Tichy refers to an organization as an organization made up of social objects.

The social objects are the employees of an organization who interact and do the following: the employees integrate different technical, political and cultural approaches, the employees focus on useful challenging questions, and help the employees implement change. The employees are therefore interconnected and play a vital role in managing strategic change as the workforce enables the flow of goods and services and shares knowledge with each other.

Using the TPC model can be useful for identifying the need for change, but it is also useful for managing strategic change. The TPC model can be used in conjunction with a network model, a model. Tichy’s network model comprises the subsequent elements: input, mission and vision, tasks, formal network, organizational processes, informal networks and output. They are all briefly explained below.

Understanding the history of the organization is essential to managing strategic change. Therefore, the input focuses on how the business has developed over time. It refers to any input from the company that has contributed to a company’s reputation. It is essential because a company’s history largely determines the company’s future course.

Mission and vision
Managing strategic change can only be successful if the company manages to communicate business messages consistently. Since the mission and vision of an organization is often the reason a company is founded, strategic decisions related to change must integrate the organisation’s raison d’ĂȘtre into the decisions. Companies also have to decide which resources can be allocated and to what extent they will be allocated.

Tasks refer to all concrete activities that must be performed to achieve the organizational goals. It also addresses how the activities should be carried out, and thus the technologies needed to successfully achieve organizational goals. Identifying concrete tasks and required technologies provides a degree of certainty for the employees. Moreover, it contributes to a smooth flow of operational processes.

Formal network
Managing strategic change involves formal understanding of the tasks to be performed by each function. It allows for formal differentiation at different levels of the organization. For example, differentiation can be based on function, geography and production.
Organizational processes

Managing strategic change can become successful with the implementation of different processes. These methods can be related to communication, management and even employee benefits. An important element of organizational processes is communication with internal supporters.
Informal networks

Informal networks refer to the interactivity between company employees. Employees share experiences and learn about the company’s mission and strategies. These interactions are necessary for the successful management of strategic change.


The term output refers to the various goals that companies have. These goals all have different functions and can affect the extent to which other goals are achieved.

A final word on managing strategic change
Managing strategic change is claimed to technical, political and cultural dynamics. These represent the primary systems and must be fully understood to understand the basic idea of an organization and the basic idea of strategic change. Since the technical dynamics can be easily explored thanks to the availability of data, the political element focuses on the level of power of organizations and the cultural element changes through the development of new norms, values and attitudes.

All dynamics require continuous evaluation to manage strategic change.
According to Tichy, the organization should be seen as a system in which the aforementioned elements function as one. Overall, identifying the need for change and managing strategic change becomes easier because of the increased power of the force behind the change.

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What is The Power Transactional Stress Model


What Is The Power Transactional Stress Model

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This article explains the transactional stress model of Richard Lazarus and Susan Folkman during a sensible method. when reading you’ll perceive the fundamentals of this powerful psychological science tool .

What happens to your body when you're stressed

What is the Transactional Stress Model ?

The transactional stress model (transactional theory of stress and brick (TTSC)) could be a framework that focuses on assessment to gauge damage, threat and challenges. the merchandise or results of this analysis could be a description of the method of managing nerve-wracking events .

Stress is knowledgeable in numerous ways that. a number of these ways that ar thoughts, feelings, behaviors and emotions. These are typically caused by external stressors. the amount of stress an individual experiences depends on however the case is perceived.

The Transactional Stress Model (Lazarus & Folkman)

The Transactional Stress Model [Lazarus & Folkman]

The transactional stress model is that the results of the analysis conducted by Dr. Richard Lazarus . This analysis started in 1966. He continued  his analysis and revealed many books and articles. For this he collaborated with different scientists, together with Dr. Susan Folkman .

Causes of stress within the geographic point

Work-related stress could be a major downside everywhere the planet. Not solely will it negatively have an effect on the health of workers, it conjointly affects the productivity of organizations as an entire. Work-related stress arises, among different things, once needs aren’t in balance with capacities. a lot of on this later.

Other sources of work-related stress are conflicts with colleagues and different stakeholders, constant modification or, as an example, dismissal. the foremost common issues are known as potential stressors among a company:

Conflicts Regarding Roles

Both personal and skilled relationships at work

Working surroundings

Bad management

Organizational cultures


Absence of support

Job needs

The symptoms of work-related stress and non-work-related stress are similar. a number of the symptoms are:

Sleep issues, sleep disorder and restlessness

Headache, muscle pain and palpitations

Psychological symptoms, like depression, anxiety, discouragement, irritability, pessimism

Cognitive issues, like a reduced ability to concentrate or a capability to create effective decision-making

Loss of productivity

Reduced work performance

Disinterest and isolation

The Core of the Transactional Stress Model

The theory behind Lazarus and Folkman’s transactional stress model evaluates how important life events, as well as everyday affairs, affect emotions. The theory mainly focuses on cognitive assessment and dealing with stress (coping).

The transactional stress model in practice

Cognitive assessment consists of an initial primary assessment, a secondary assessment, and possibly a reassessment. Secondary assessment is about assessing the possibilities in a given situation and the person’s ability to deal with it.

Coping follows from the assessment described above, and can affect a change in the relationships between a person and their environment or the degree of emotional stress experienced. Factors influencing coping mechanisms as well as judgment are personality traits, symptoms of depression and social influences.

To understand the power of the transactional stress model, it is important to understand exactly what stress is and how research on stress has evolved over the years. For this reason, in the next section of this article, stress is defined in three ways: stress as a response, stress as a stimulus, and stress as a transaction.

1. Stress as a response

That stress can be a reaction was established by Hans Selye in 1956. In his stress model he describes how stress creates a physiological pattern. He recorded this pattern in the General Adaptation Syndrome model. This model describes stress as a response based on three concepts.

  • Stress is a defense mechanism
  • Stress occurs with alarm, resistance and exhaustion
  • Stress, if present for a long time, can lead to adaptation diseases and even death

Afterwards, Selye discovered that stress can result in both positive and negative outcomes based on its cognitive interpretation. Therefore, stress can be experienced in a positive way and in a negative way.

2. Stress as a stimulus

The theory behind the concept of stress as a stimulus was introduced by Holmes and Rahe in the 1960s. They saw stress as an important event or change that requires adjustment or response. Rahe and Holmes then created the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) . This scale consists of 42 life events that are ranked based on the estimated degree of influence these events require from a person.

Examples of these events include marriages, divorces, relocations, or the loss or change of a job or loved one. Holmes and Rahe assumed that stress was a variable in the comparison between stress and health. Although some correlations emerged, the extent to which stress affects health was not clearly definable.

The theory about stress as a stimulus can be summarized in the following points:

  • Change is stressful
  • The degree to which life events require adjustment is the same for everyone
  • There is a threshold of adjustment and stress beyond which illness is a consequence

3. Stress as a transaction

As established, several studies on stress had been conducted before Lazarus and Folkman developed their transactional stress model. They did so mainly in an attempt to explain stress as a dynamic process.

The theory explains stress as a product of interactions between a person and his or her environment. When it comes to the person, it is about multiple systems within a person: the cognitive system, physiological state, affective system, psychological system and neurological system.

Winter hardiness

Attention to the Lazarus and Folkman theory was heightened when Suzanne Kobassa used the concept of hardiness in 1979. Hardiness, also called cognitive or psychological hardiness, is a personality style.

Kobassa described a pattern of personality traits that distinguished managers and executives who remained healthy under stress and those who developed health problems.

Level 1: Primary appraisal

According to the transactional stress model, situations are assessed in different ways. A situation can be judged as positive, irrelevant or potentially dangerous. In the case of the latter option, stress arises more often than with other forms of stress. If a situation is considered stressful, assessment takes place at different levels. As:

  • Challenge in manageable situations
  • Threats of foreseeable loss
  • Damage or loss when the damage has already occurred

Level 2: Secondary assessment

The second level of assessment is called secondary assessment. The purpose of the secondary assessment is to determine whether the specific situation can be managed with available resources.

When insufficient resources are available to deal with the situation, a stress response is triggered by the human brain. A coping strategy is designed on this. This strategy depends on the situation and the person’s characteristics. This way of dealing with stress and the threats that arise from this is called coping.

Known behaviors in response to this are: fleeing, fighting, denying, changing or behavioral alternatives. When individuals use post-situation feedback to evaluate success or failure, they learn to selectively apply different strategies.

Level 3: Reassessment (re-assessment)

At the third level of assessment, the success of the deployed coping strategy is assessed to ensure adaptation for a new situation. 

Learning to deal with a stress situation is always a challenge. A challenge can even become a threat if not addressed properly. Lazarus describes the possibility of revising the initial assessment as a reassessment.

Deal with stress

In his studies, Lazarus wrote about three types of stress management. It concerns dealing with stress in a problem-oriented way, dealing with stress in an emotion-oriented way and dealing with stress in an assessment-based manner. The different ways of dealing with stress are briefly explained below.

Dealing with stress in a problem-oriented way

Problem-focused coping refers to a person who tries to control or adapt problem situations by seeking information, taking action, or not acting.

Dealing with stress emotionally

Emotion-focused coping is also referred to as intrapsychic coping. Its main purpose is to reduce emotional arousal.

Dealing with stress in an assessment-oriented way

The term reassessment is used by Lazarus in two contexts. On the one hand, it relates to the evaluation process, and at the same time reassessment is a coping strategy. Coping can affect stress and emotion simply by reassessing the situation.

Transactional Model of Stress and Coping (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). |  Download Scientific Diagram

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