Let me start like this…
As the world community is growing day by day, we as people must think how to produce more food on long term, without hurting the nature. In this blog I would like to send some triggers to Governments/Policymakers and other important/relevant authorities in the Caribbean Region especially Suriname and Guyana. A certain mind set is needed in combination of a long term mission and vision on this subject.
WHAT IS A FOODSCAPE?
A foodscape is simply the integration of edible plants in traditional ornamentallandscapes (around our very own living space). It is all about creating the most of the square footage you have access to.
· Utilize an ornamental base for yourself
· Increase bio‐diversity step by step
· Beneficial insects will be around you
· Reduced disease/stress
· Manage all organically
· Select your own choice of plants to create an engaging space
· Conversation starter all the time
· Grow in containers, window boxes and vertical systems
· Alternative growing systems are easy to do
· Rooftops offer plenty plenty sunny square meters to run this business
· Think outside of the box
· Use the existing landscape
· Full sun in the Caribbean
· Easily irrigated
· Maintain regularly
· Grow on YOUR terms… it is a wonderful hobby
Sample Mission Statement
Our/My mission is to empower our/my customers with foodscape structures, protocols and plants that make producing food simple and lasting, accessible and serviceable to a broad customer demographic.
We/I aim to be knowledgeable, innovative and uncommonly helpful as we foster a greener world for the future.
Sample Vision Statement
Our/My vision is to restore the balance between green space (plants) and hard space (concrete, steel, glass) wherever you are.
We aim to create a greener more hospitable planet Earth by proclaiming the benefits of plants and helping ourself/clients to successfully install and cultivate them (also on vertical surfaces).
Some Benefits of Foodscaping
Foodscaping offers a variety of benefits, many of which are a result of fulfillment of the human need to connect with nature. The research study which is also known as ‘biophilia,’ a growing field of study that emphasizes the physiological and resultant economic benefits that come from restoring natural connections in our built environment.
Performance + Productivity
Our innate need to connect with nature is known as biophilia. This is the serious driving force behind our boost in mood, sharper focus, and stronger immune system when we are exposed to natural environments. Foodscaping is a great way to trigger the biophilic response and improve performance and productivity (for everyone).
Workplaces/enviroments which incorporate biophilic design elements such as access to nature have reduced absenteeism, fewer complaints, and improved staff retention. Happy people will be around.
Providing access to nature in the workplace can reduce eyestrain, relieve mental fatigue, and improve focus on tasks during the day, but also at night.
Integrating plants into workplaces yields productivity gains and reduced psychological stress and pshycological pressure.
Students exposure to nature has been correlated with higher academic performance in Mathematics and English.
Studies/researches have also demonstrated that exposure to nature eases symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).
Shoppers will stay longer in stores and visit more frequently when plants are heavily prevalent inside and outside retail settings. Believe it or not.
Consumers might purchase more merchandise and are surely willing to pay higher prices for goods when surrounded by nice nature.
Foodscaping environments can be used to improve the view in leased space, translating into more dollars guests or tenants are willing to spend during their staying.
Patients who physically interact with plants use less medication and experience significantly reduced recovery times after medical procedures.
Using plants and planted walls as well in healthcare enhances the experience of patients, visitors and staff, who report greater satisfaction and positive feelings in the presence of nature.
Did you know that researchers have found lowered cortisol levels and reduced reported anxiety levels correlating with access and interaction with plants.
Colors can have an effect on our/my very own emotions. Green is linked to safety, so green foliage typical of indoor plantings create a comforting environment. Think about it.
Food scaping and especially vertical gardens are a popular solution in the rising urban farming movement as horizontal space can be difficult to come by in densely populated areas. Yes even in rural and suburban areas, restaurateurs, senior caregivers, healthcare providers, and homeowners are turning to food scaping and vertical farming for affordable, low-maintenance food production.
Good food scaping (vertical green walls) can serve as a means of expression, creating a unique space for people to express themselves in various ways.
Good Landscaped communities are more attractive to tourists and shoppers, and community planners can balance the desire for greenness with the desire for wide, welcoming sidewalks through green food producing walls.
The plants in the living wall cool and beautify neighborhoods without taking up ground space, and surface runoff can be collected, treated and used for irrigation, reducing site runoff.
Community Bonds on Long Term
Similarly, nice green communities correlate with increased sense of pride and place, levels of trust, and civic participation. Residents in nice green communities spend more time outdoors and forming bonds with neighbors. You don’t have to agree with me.
Increased positive public sentiment can support other community goals, such as maintaining population levels that bolster a community’s economic sustainability and stability. This will increase more love for food scaping.
When used to grow herbs and vegetables, produce from a living vertical wall provides supplemental food that is healthy for our body and the environment.
Children—and adults—who are involved in the process of growing their own food are more likely to have healthier diets.
I really hope to have triggered you with this short blog.
Let us collectively spread this message further and start to create lovely green producing communities not far from home.
If you have any other suggestions/ideas, feel free to drop them down in the comments here below.
If everyone join together and do their part, the results will be sun shining very quickly. Meh done talk ! Do deh Ting…
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This article explains Chunking in a practical way. After reading you will understand the basics of this powerful tool for psychology and memory engineering . Roll your eyes further in this article…
What is the Chunking method?
Chunking is a method related to cognitive psychology. In the chunking process, individual pieces of a particular set of information are broken down and then grouped into a meaningful and logical whole.
Chunking is a mnemonic technique. A mnemonic technique is a technique that a person can use to improve the ability of his or her memory. It is simply a shortcut that allows humans to link information to be remembered to an image, sentence, word or other mnemonic.
What is Chunking’s purpose?
The purpose of Chunking by splitting information is to hold information in the short term. As a result, the limited storage capacity of human working memory is passed. A chunk, or chunk, is a collection of basic units grouped and stored in a person’s memory.
These chunks can be easily recalled in memory because of their familiarity. The items are more easily remembered in a group than individual items themselves. The chunks of information can be highly subjective because they depend on a person’s perceptions and past experiences. The size of so-called chunks varies, but the total often consists of two to seven items.
How did Chunking as a psychology tool come about?
In 1956, Harvard University professor George Miller published an article entitled The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Information Processing. In it, he described the results of a series of cognitive experiments that he conducted with his colleagues. Miller found that people could usually remember between five and nine pieces of information. Seven was and is the average.
Of course, mnemonic techniques were used long before this time. Some of these techniques date back to ancient Greek times. Today everyone uses these techniques.
Core elements of the chunking method
Fourteen years after George Miller’s research, Neal Johnson came up with an article outlining four main concepts of the memory process and chunking. These are: chunk, memory code, decoding and recoding. The chunk, as discussed earlier, is the series of pieces of information to be remembered. These items are stored in memory code. In recoding, one learns the code for a chunk, and in decoding, the code is translated back into the information it represents.
The phenomenon of chunking as a memory mechanism is easy to observe in everyday life. Take, for example, the way people group numbers and information by remembering telephone numbers or addresses. A phone number such as 14121998 can be easily remembered by dividing it into 14, 12 and 1998. For example, the number is stored as December 14, 1998 instead of a series of individual digits. Others divide the number into pieces of 3, others into pieces of 2.
How does Chunking improve memory?
A 2019 study from the University of Zurich describes how chunking as a memory mechanism affects memory. This research tested whether chunking indeed helps to circumvent the limited capacity of working memory. The experiments that the researchers conducted showed that chunking could not only store and recall bits of information, but also non-chunked information that was stored simultaneously. This supports the assumption that chunking partly relieves working memory.
In addition, the researchers were answered whether the size of the chunks with information influences these benefits. As long as the pieces of information remain linked, the size of the piece of information had no influence. Only when pieces of information have to be remembered that are not linked to each other, does the size of the chunk determine the effectiveness with which it can be stored.
How do I practice Chunking?
For many students and professionals, Chunking is one of the best ways to memorize bits of information. However, not all chunks have the same level of difficulty and so some pieces require more attention than others. The same goes for someone who learns to play the piano by hearing and playing. A beginner will listen to the piece several times and learn to play it piece by piece.
Chunking as a reminder is not difficult to perform. Identifying the chunks is probably the trickiest part of the Chunking process. Below is a step-by-step plan. Follow this step-by-step plan and learn to remember information in a new way within four steps.
Get started with Chunking
Whether it’s a high school history exam, the key points of a meeting or a briefing from colleagues, Chunking can be used wherever things need to be remembered. Follow the 4-step plan below to use this memory mechanism yourself.
Step 1: Identify the chunks
First, it is important to select the right pieces of information. Students may receive a timeline of dates and events to learn from their history teacher. The piano student may have to practice with large octave jumps in a piece of music that he has to practice in advance. Immediately circle these parts. When all pieces of information have been covered, the pieces can be learned.
Step 2: don’t rush
Do not expect what you are learning to be completed in a session, depending on the situation. There is a reason people are learning bits of information: often what they learn is difficult. Sometimes it is necessary for someone to sleep a night before he or she can continue with the next piece. If necessary, plan the week in which you learn a different bit on each day and repeat the previous bit.
Step 3: Start slow
Just because the big picture only consists of 5 pieces of information, that doesn’t mean you have to go through it at a fast pace and hope your memory keeps up. Start slowly and make sure there are no mistakes in what you have learned. Make sure that the sequence is correct, that the pieces are related and that what you have learned is well anchored in the memory.
Step 4: Integrate with existing pieces
Each piece must then be connected to the rest of the pieces. Many people forget this last step. As a result, the transition of pieces is messy. When it comes to playing the piano, it seems as if the pianist needs a short pause between the different parts to switch to the next part. To transition seamlessly from piece to piece, a different strategy is used: chaining. Each chunk is made a bit bigger so that in the end everything consists of 1 chunk.
The relationship between expertise and memory capacity
Several studies have shown that people are better able to remember things when they try to remember things they are familiar with. Likewise, people tend to make chunks out of information they are familiar with. This level of familiarity makes people better able to remember more chunks, but also more specific content of those chunks of information.
A well-known experiment was conducted by Chase and Ericsson. They worked with students for two years to see if a person’s grade range could be extended through practice. One student was a long-distance runner. By splitting a series of numbers into race times, his range of numbers was extended. Where 7 numbers is normal, this student managed to memorize 80 numbers by linking them to race times. The student later stated that he could expand his strategy by including ages and years in the pieces of information. This made it easier for him to remember the kibble.
It is important to state that a person who has no knowledge of a particular expert domain such as race times would have had a harder time memorizing so many numbers using this method.
Alternative mnemonic techniques
In addition to dividing information into pieces with the Chunking technique, there are a few other mnemonic techniques. The most common are briefly explained below.
Loci’s method is a reminder from the time of the ancient Greeks. This makes it one of the oldest information retention techniques we know today. Using it is simple. Imagine a house that you are familiar with. You can divide the house into different rooms.
These different rooms represent information objects that must be remembered. Another example is to use a route. It is useful to choose a known route such as the route from home to work. Different landmarks along the way then represent pieces of information.
Another mnemonic technique is the use of acronyms. An acronym is a word formed from the first letters or groups of letters in a name or phrase. An acrostic is a series of lines from which certain letters, such as the first letters of all lines, come from a word or phrase. These techniques are used as a mnemonic by memorizing the first letters of certain words.
Examples of acronyms are: EFQM Model, RACI Model, ADKAR Model, PEST Model, ADDIE Model, SWOT Model and more.
A rhyme is a saying with similar rhyme patterns. These terminal sounds can appear at the end of the line or at a different place in the sentence. Rhymes are easy to remember because they are stored in acoustic coding in the brain.
Visualizations are a very effective way of learning information. Language and visualisations are often used to remember word pairs such as green grass, yellow sun, blue water, etc. The Loci method is also a form of using visualisations. By remembering specific images, it can help people to remember information associated with this image.
Chunking is a memory mechanism that helps people learn to remember information by breaking it down into small pieces. Chunking is a mnemonic technique. A mnemonic technique means that it helps people to improve the capacity of the memory. By using chunking, the regular working memory of the brain is relieved. Chunks, or pieces of related information, can be more easily remembered than individual pieces of information. A chunk usually consists of two to seven items.
Chunking is often used in everyday life. An example of this is the way people memorize telephone numbers. One learns the number in groups of 2, the other turns the number into a date, and the other learns the number digit by digit.
Chunking is very easy to apply and practice. It is important that the complete body of information first identifies the most important things to learn. Depending on the amount of information and the size of the pieces, make sure that a good planning is made that describes the activity for each day. Start slowly, make sure there are no mistakes in the learning, repeat and use chaining to link the pieces together.
Chase and Ericsson conducted an experiment among students for two years. This showed that a long-distance runner was able to memorize 80 numbers when paired them with race times, ages and years. This is much more than the seven numbers usually remembered by the average person.
Besides chunking, there are some other very effective mnemonic techniques. The Loci method is the oldest of these. The method dating back to the time of the Greeks allows people to use their imagination. By dividing a known house into a number of rooms and linking information objects to them, it is easier to remember information. Acronyms is also a mnemonic technique. An acronym is a word formed from the first letters of a particular word or phrase. Rhymes are also used to remember information. Because certain syllables from each line rhyme with each other, the information is stored in the auditory part of the memory. This also relieves the working memory.
What do you think? Do you recognize the explanation about chunking? Do you use this memory mechanism to easily remember information? For example, how do you remember a long telephone number? What other tips can you share with us for remembering information? Which other memory trainers do you know? Do you have any tips or comments?
Share your knowledge and experience via the comment field at the bottom of this article.
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The covid-19 pandemic offers opportunities worldwide to do better, once the clouds have cleared. So do tons of people like me and you think everyday. Many dogmas have already flew out the window in recent months, many others may follow.
There are the seeds of hope, there is the massive challenge to shape a new world soon. But there is more that connects the members of the new resistance: they are constructive, creative and rightly impudent. People who resist demand respect for democracy and try to force change both inside and outside systems and organizations. The new resistance has new faces, but is based on a rich history and a strong civil society that is too often under attack.
The new resistance is badly needed now and as soon as COVID-19 is under control, or something like it. The recovery of our societies, of our economies, of our cities, of people will not go smoothly. We applaud, perhaps too soon, the prospect of a vaccine and new freedom. But practical objections, mistrust and a neoliberal roadmap stand in the way of a smooth global vaccination.
At the same time, the pandemic offers opportunities to do better when the clouds clear. Opportunities not to let those few annual percentage points of growth in gross national product get in the way of people and their needs too often.
Many dogmas have already flew out the window in recent months, many others may follow. Massive investments were smoothly planned to keep the economy going. I saw it was okay, though there was no other option. But how well prepared are we for a historic recovery with leaders in many places who are making the lives of countless others more difficult or nearly impossible just now?
It is sometimes a challenge not to become cynical. I look around and see that too many strings of the recovery are in the hands of people who usually did not care about the consequences of the corona crisis for the most vulnerable. I look in the mirror, but I also address you. Look elsewhere, avert your gaze and look for weeds and naturalists, people kicking shins and reminding us that, every day, we determine the future together.
STAY SAFE and KEEP THINKING BIG
Metacognition is ‘thinking about thinking’, ‘knowing about knowing’ and ‘becoming aware of consciousness’. The term metacognition comes from the root word meta, which means further or above. Metacognition takes many forms and includes knowledge about when and how certain strategies can be used to solve problems or to learn. In general, metacognition involves two components: knowledge about cognition and regulation of cognition.
Metacognition as a concept was first introduced by John Flavell . He is seen as the founder of this field. Flavell stated that metacognition is the knowledge people have about their own cognitive processes. Flavell shares an example: “I engage in metacognition when I have more difficulty learning A than B and when I have to check C again before accepting it as fact.”
So metacognition is the ability to control thought processes through different strategies. Examples of these strategies are organizing, monitoring and adapting. In addition, metacognition is the ability to think about tasks, processes and conditions that are required in intercultural interactions.
Metacognition is considered an essential part of successful learning. It is directly linked to the self-regulation and self-reflection of strengths and weaknesses and the strategies a person devises to achieve a goal. Metacognition is the foundation of culturally intelligent leadership because it underscores how someone thinks about a problem or situation and what strategies he or she will use to tackle the problem.
Elements of Metacognitive Knowledge
As described, Flavell distinguishes between metacognitive knowledge and metacognitive regulation. Metacognitive knowledge refers to what individuals know about their own cognitive processes, about different approaches that can be used for problem solving, and about the requirements and conditions for successfully completing a task. Metacognitive regulation mainly refers to the adjustments that individuals make in their cognitive processes to help manage and improve their learning process. Examples include plans, information management, evaluation of progress and goals , etc. Metacognitive knowledge is further divided into three categories.
- Person variables
A person variable is what someone knows about his or her strengths and weaknesses in learning and processing information.
- Strategy variables
Strategy variables are the strategies that a person is always ready to apply in various ways to accomplish a task. Examples include activating prior knowledge before studying a technical article, using a glossary to look up unfamiliar words, or realizing that a paragraph has to be read multiple times to be understood.
- Task variables
Task variables are everything someone knows about the nature of a particular task and the requirements to perform the task. An example of this is the knowledge that reading an academic article takes more effort to understand and remember than any passage from a novel.
Livingston gave his own definition of metacognitive knowledge in 1997 by describing these variables: ‘I know that I (person variable) have trouble with word problems (task variable), so I will answer the math problems first and save the language problems for last. (strategy variable).
Elements of Metacognitive Regulation
Like metacognitive knowledge, metacognitive regulation also includes some conditions or skills that are essential.
Planning refers to the selection of strategies and allocation of resources that affect job performance. Selecting good strategies and proper allocation of resources are signs of accurate planning in the metacognitive regulation process.
Monitoring refers to an individual’s awareness of understanding and task performance.
Evaluation refers to assessing the end product of a particular task. The efficiency with which the task has been performed is also assessed.
Below are some effective strategies for advancing metacognitions.
Self-questioning is the evaluation process that students and others can use in which they ask themselves effective questions before, during and after learning to test their understanding of what is learned. Encouraging students to do this can be an effective way to expand their understanding of the subject. This metacognitive strategy has been extensively tested and tested.
One of the studies investigated whether self-questioning affected exactly how much the students could learn in a period. Several groups were created. The first group asked themselves these questions during the lecture. Students in the next group asked themselves questions during the lecture and had a Q&A session with each other afterwards. The third group of students discussed the content of the lecture in a small group, and the students from the last group of students assessed the teaching material individually.
The researchers found that the students in the first two groups performed better than the students in the last two groups.
Thinking out loud
Think hard is a strategy for improving metacognitions by having students and others say out loud what they think when reading, answering questions, or solving problems. It can be thought of as eavesdropping on someone’s thoughts. Thinking out loud means that thoughts are made audible. Thinking out loud has several advantages:
Thinking out loud helps control people’s thinking ability while reading
Improves understanding of what is being considered
Thinking aloud slows down the reading process, which forces people to follow the text with focus
Another strategy for improving metacognitions is to use graphic organizers. These are also called cognitive tools. Visualizations actively help to improve the human thinking process. Visualizations help individuals:
- Organizing thoughts
- Making connections between things they know
- Visualizing processes and procedures
There are many forms of visualization to support the human thought process. Examples of this are:
- Mind map
- Flow charts
Theories of learning styles such as the Gardner Multiple Intelligence Theory suggest that different people learn in different ways. It is therefore crucial to know which strategy works best for someone. Common learning styles are:
- A visual learner learns optimally through graphs, images, documentaries and other visualisations. This group of people are very good at identifying patterns and matching colors
- An auditory pupil learns optimally by listening instead of watching or reading. They enjoy hearing stories and listening to podcasts
- A kinesthetic students learn optimally through movement. This group of people like to learn by doing things instead of reading or listening. They are active rather than passive people.
- Logical-mathematical. People who learn logical mathematics are good at using reasoning to find answers to difficult questions. They are generally good with numbers, but sometimes have difficulty with subjective issues.
- An interpersonal learner learns best through social interaction. They are good at group work, have high emotional intelligence, and are good at compromising to get the job done.
- An intra-personal learner is someone who likes to learn things through pondering. They prefer to be alone and in isolation to learn and experience cooperation as a distraction.
Someone who is aware of the way his or her brain most comfortably processes information can work on personal strengths and weaknesses.
Metacognition thus plays a crucial role in learning new things. A place where many new things are learned is a school. Below is an explanation of metacognition through an example of a student.
1. The ability to think critically about one’s own thoughts
Often individuals are reluctant to admit that they are wrong in any way. However, taking a step back and assessing your own thoughts and mistakes plays a key role in becoming an independent and successful learner. When Student X is having trouble with certain math problems, he or she should consider whether his thought process for solving the problem is the right way.
2. The self-awareness and control over your own thoughts
A high self-awareness level helps in controlling one’s thoughts. It is very important to increase awareness of your own skills. People who are not strong in metacognitive thinking generally tend to overestimate or underestimate themselves completely. As a result, they face major setbacks more quickly than someone who is aware of their capabilities.
Someone who is aware of his own abilities, either teacher or student, can proceed more quickly to improve in lesser areas.
3. The ability to devise helpful strategies at each stage of a task
Before any task, students can use metacognitive thinking to think about which strategy would work best for the specific problem. What strategy has worked for a similar problem before? What would be a good first step? While performing the task, students can use metacognitive thinking to make sure they stay on track and that what they are doing actually works.
After completing a task, students can have a self-debrief that is accurate and consistent across all tasks. This ensures that emotions do not get in the way of judgment and learning.
Think about thinking. Metacognition quite literally means raising awareness of consciousness. Metacognition was first proposed by John Flavell and has since been broadly developed and deployed widely.
The term metacognition distinguishes between metacognitive knowledge and metacognitive regulation. Metacognitive knowledge comprises everything people know about their personal cognitive processes. Metacognitive regulation refers to managing and improving their cognitive processes to enhance learning.
Metacognitive knowledge is also divided into person variables, strategy variables and task variables. Person variables refer to what someone knows about his or her weaknesses in learning and processing new information. Strategy variables are about the strategies available to someone to approach problems in different ways. Task variables are about what someone already knows about a particular task and the requirements to perform this task.
Metacognitive regulation also has three components. First, there is the concept of plans. Planning refers to the allocation of the right resources and the selection of the right strategies for solving a problem. Monitoring involves awareness of understanding and task performance and evaluation refers to assessing the final product and process prior to the finished product.
There are different methods for training metacognition. The most important of these is self-questioning. Self-questioning stimulates the user to think actively before, during and after learning. Thinking aloud promotes metacognitions by getting people to actively think about what they read or consider. Visualizations serve to support the thinking process by organizing thoughts, uncovering connections between different things and visualizing processes and procedures.
Closely related to the word metacognition are the different learning styles. Anyone who knows or knows and thinks about thinking knows which learning style suits him or her best. Examples of different learning styles are visual, auditory, kinesthetic, logical-mathematical, interpersonal and interpersonal.
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This article explains Bales ‘s social interaction theory in a practical way. After reading you will understand the basics of this powerful communication and coaching tool.
What is Social Interaction Theory?
Social Interaction Theory, also known as Social Interaction Systems Theory, was developed by Robert Freed Bales. Bales was a pioneer in Harvard University’s Social Relations Department at the time. The project from which this theory emerged was intended to develop an integrative framework for social psychology. This had to be based on the social interaction process, supplemented with value analyzes on the content of the interaction. Bales believed that this personal approach goes far beyond the classic experimental approach to group dynamics study.
Systematic Multiple Level Observation of Groups (SYMLOG)
As part of the research, Bales developed SYMLOG. This stands for Systematic Multiple Level Observation of Groups. The SYMLOG Consulting Group’s approach and operations were interactive and global. Among other things, it created a database that made it possible to search for connections between human interaction that went much further than previously known.
In the research prior to the publication of social interaction theory, the fundamental boundaries of the field were established, and the criteria for behavior for leaders and followers. To this end, Bales offers a new field theory. The new field theory is a reappraisal of the many contexts in which people live. Bales did not strive to reduce differences, but to understand them. He further emphasized that demental processes of individuals and social interaction take place in systematic contexts that can be measured. This allows behavior to be explained and predicted more accurately than in the past.
Interaction Process Analysis
Interaction Process Analysis is a term that describes a collection of methods that have evolved over the last twenty years. The methods take different forms and have been invented, borrowed and reinvented or improved. What the theories have in common is that it is based on first-hand observation of social interaction in small groups.
In addition to social interaction theory, Robert Bales also developed his Interaction Process Analysis. An observer was asked to record the actions and reactions of each of the group members in one of twelve categories. The categories were broken down as follows:
Shows solidarity . The person being observed raises the status of others, helps others, and gives rewards or compliments to others.
Decreases tension . The person being observed smiles, is relaxed, shows satisfaction or makes a joke.
Shows agreement . The person being observed shows acceptance, understanding or compliance with rules.
Provides suggestions . The person being observed gives directions to others, implies autonomy from others and is independent.
Gives opinion . The person being observed gives his or her opinion, shares analyzes with the rest of the group, shares feelings or wishes / demands.
Provides orientation . The person being observed gives information to others, repeats important things, confirms or clarifies when this is desired.
Requires orientation . The person being observed asks for information, or asks for confirmation or repetition when desired.
Asks for opinion . The person being observed asks for evaluations, analyzes or expressions of the feelings of others.
Asks for suggestions . The person being observed asks for direction or alternative options for action.
Agrees with this . The person being observed shows rejection or withholding help.
Shows tension . The person being observed asks for help or withdraws from the situation.
Shows antagonism . The observed person deflates the status of others and often defends his or her own.
Group roles in the Three Dimensional Space or Interpersonal Personality model
Bales was convinced that a person relies on their own personal observation of themselves and others in the group to get a clear picture of what an effective team member is. For example, a group member cannot be too far behind the work and natural flow of events, otherwise his or her participation will suffer. To describe these factors, Bales developed the Three Dimensional Space of Interpersonal Personality model in addition to the social interaction theory. This model describes both the value of someone for the group and the meaning of someone for the group. The type of role a person has is distinguished by the perception and evaluation of others in the group. These perceptions and evaluations are linked to behavior or the position someone is in.
Does he or she get a lot of people to laugh?
Does it look like she or he will rank high on leadership?
Does he or she seem to get a lot of interaction from others?
Does he or she seem to find himself entertaining?
Does he or she consider themselves a good person?
Does he or she seem to have a general trust in others?
Do you like him or her?
The answers to these questions together usually form a personality type. The answers provide a good insight into the discrepancies in someone’s behavior. Characteristics of a personality that are determined are not actually characteristics of the individual as such, but characteristics of the person in the role of the individual in a particular group. To understand the behavior of an individual in a group, it is essential to distinguish between permanent and personal traits of a person and those that are only displayed in a group role. To determine the personality of someone on a team, the entire group must be observed and how other group members rate the individual.
6 main roles
The Three Dimensional Space of Interpersonal Personality model is published in the book SYMLOG: A System for the Multiple Level Observation of Groups. This model begins by setting out the six main roles. These are:
Emotionally expressive (backward)
The model also contains the corresponding characteristics of the previously described main roles. These characteristics are:
Happy to be with others
Role types and combinations of social interaction theory
The roles and characteristics mentioned above are used to identify the connections, networks and coalitions between different groups. Each type has a different combination of characteristics. The differentiating factor of the different types is based on the other characteristics associated with a person.
Type U is an active and talkative, powerful personality on the road to success and power. Type UP appears to be socially outgoing, friendly, positive and on the way to social success above all. Type UPF is friendly, value-oriented and a real task leader. He or she is on the road to solidarity and progress. Type UF is a person with strong leadership qualities, task oriented and evolving towards collaboration. Type UNF is dominant, morally superior and unfriendly. Type UB is non-task oriented, expressive and confident. He or she is also rebellious, aggressive and on the road to stubborn assertiveness. Type UPB is warm, affectionate, and moves toward warmth and emotional support to others.
Assuming different roles in social interactions according to social interaction theory
The first part of this article defined different roles and how people’s behavior can change when they work in groups. This section is mainly about how people assume different roles in everyday life.
Social interaction based on different roles happens almost automatically. A role is fulfilled without the person thinking about it. This is also the reason why social interaction is so accessible. If everyone always had to think before taking on a role, social interaction would become very slow, tedious and full of mistakes.
Suppose in a random store, an employee asks a customer how much he earns per month. You might expect such a personal question from a close friend, as discussions about personal matters are part of the roles befitting friends, but this is not expected from a store associate.
As the example above illustrates, social interaction relies in part on background assumptions or understanding the roles expected of people in different contexts. If this understanding of different roles is violated, the social order can easily be disrupted.
Sociologist Garfinkel explained that unexpected events such as those described above make the social order very vulnerable. He explains that people are constantly constructing the social environment in which they find themselves. To make his point, he had some of his students conduct experiments. Below was the assignment for students to behave like strangers in their own parents’ homes. It should come as no surprise that most parents are quick to wonder what college did to their kids.
Social interaction theory is thus mainly concerned with the fact that the social order is highly socially constructed. It’s exactly what people make of it when interacting with each other. Sociologists call this the social construction of reality. Although most people find themselves in situations where views are shared about what is to come, actors continue to define the situation and thus construct reality.
Roles and the influence on personalities
Thus, as described above, different roles help to construct the social order. However, taking on different roles has another effect. It may be that a personality is influenced / formed by this. The idea is that when people assume a new role, the expectations of that role can change the way we interact with others. It can also change the way we see and treat ourselves.
An example of this comes from Professor Kirkham, a criminal law professor in the United States. During his classes, Kirkham was critical of the harshness with which the police treated suspects. One of the police officers present in his class commented that Kirkham could not say such a thing because he did not know what it was like to be a police officer. They challenged him to do basic police training. After closing the base distraction, Kirkham walked out with a few cops. During the first shift they were asked to go to a cafe where a drunken man was causing trouble. Kirkham asked the man if he could go outside. Instead of listening, the wheel-turner slapped Kirkham on the face. In another event, they were called to a situation where bystanders were threatening to stand around their car. Kirkham took out a weapon to keep bystanders at bay. He later said about this that as a professor he would judge the officer he had become for his behavior. In a short space of time, Kirkham had turned from a nice professor to a serious cop. His role had thus changed, and probably also his personality to a small extent. In any case, his views are. His role had thus changed, and probably also his personality to a small extent. In any case, his views are. His role had thus changed, and probably also his personality to a small extent. In any case, his views are.
Now it’s your turn
What do you think? Do you recognize the explanation of the social interaction theory? Can you give an example of a situation where social order was disrupted? Do you have trouble taking on different roles, or is it automatic? What do you think is important when interacting with others? Can you share tips for people who have trouble interacting with others? Do you have any tips or comments about this article?
Share your knowledge and experience via the comment field at the bottom of this article.
If you found the article useful or practical for your own knowledge, please share it with your network or join us on telegram (t.me/blogzynergy).
WHILE the story behind Diwali and the manner of celebration vary from region to region, for Hindus, Diwali is one of the most important festivals of the year.
Families celebrate by performing traditional activities together in their homes. However, this event takes on its own life with persons from all walks of life playing a part as either a spectator or participant in the festival of lights.
The celebrations feature festive fireworks, worship, sharing of sweets and lighting of diyas. Traditionally, Diwali marks the end of the harvest season. Farmers give thanks for the bounty of the year gone by, and pray for a good harvest for the year to come.
While Diwali is popularly known as the “festival of lights”, the most significant spiritual meaning behind it is “the awareness of the inner light”.
The celebration of Diwali as the “victory of good over evil” is a holiday of joy; it is the time when devotees gather with loved ones, celebrating family, friends and the prosperity God has bestowed upon us. Diwali also marks the New Year.
For some, the day of Diwali itself is the first day of the New Year, and for others, the New Year’s Day is the day following Diwali. But, for all, this season is one of heralding in the New Year.
On this day, devotees clean every room of the house; they dust every corner of the garage, sweep behind bookshelves, vacuum under beds and empty out cabinets. But, what about our hearts? When was the last time we swept out our hearts? When did we last empty them of all the dirt and garbage that accumulated throughout our lives?
This is the true focus of the festival, the inward light of higher knowledge dispelling all ignorance, the ignorance that masks one’s true nature, not as the body, but as the unchanging, infinite, immanent and transcendent reality.
With this awakening comes compassion and the awareness of the oneness of all things (higher knowledge). This brings joy or peace.
According to the Hindu calendar, Amavasya or ‘no moon day’ is considered as the perfect day to celebrate Diwali. This dark night comes after every fortnight and in the month of Kartik, it marks this festival of lights and diyas. According to the English calendar, the festival generally comes in the month of November or December.
Diwali is celebrated for many reasons; but the most commonly known reason is to celebrate the day Sri Rama, Sitaji, and Lakshman returned from their exile of 14 years in the forest – symbolizing a win of goodness over evil. By the Hindu calendar, it also marks the start of the New Year calendar.
In fact, Diwali is considered so auspicious that it is celebrated with families and friends over five days. For many Hindus, this five-day festival honours Lakshmi, the goddess of wealth.
Many Hindus have already cleaned their places of abode which, according to tradition, welcomes the goddess of wealth who is also associated with the festival.
If a partaker is away from the sights and sounds of Diwali, light a diya, sit quietly, shut your eyes, withdraw the senses, concentrate on this supreme light and illuminate the soul.
Letting go of control seems almost impossible. How do you let go of control when you’re afraid things will go wrong? How can you let go of what you fear? Still, letting go of control is possible, with the insights in this article.
The more control we want, the more tension we get in return. Because many things can we just can not control.
There are 3 simple questions that hardly anyone asks themselves. When you answer these questions, you automatically let go. And you can apply this to any area of your life.
Letting go gives you relaxation, confidence and inner strength. Let it go!
What can you control – and what not?
We have no control over the future, because no one knows exactly what will happen. We have no control over other people because they just do what they want to do.
If you think carefully, you will see that you cannot control many situations and people. You really only have control over what you do – here and now .
If you can’t change something, you can only accept and let go. This often feels unnatural, because control is part of our system. We have the illusion that we can influence almost everything.
Well, if it were, your life would be absolutely perfect, wouldn’t it?
Then you had already arranged that yourself …
Exercise in letting go – in every area.
You can apply the following exercise in any area of your life. You can practice this every day, in any situation. It does not matter whether it is about letting go of financial worries, relationship problems or worries about the future.
Letting go is the solution to all stress and worries. The essence is always this: too much control creates tension. In any field!
When you try to control something, something controls you too.
When you let go of something, you are free.
The next time you feel tension, ask yourself the following three questions:
Letting go of control – question 1: What am I trying to control?
What is causing my inner turmoil? Do I want a guarantee for the future? Am I trying to determine what someone else should do? Am I concerned with the past? What makes me feel insecure?
Find the core of that tension. What are you trying to control or change? For instance:
1. I regret that I made that choice then.
2. Why did he do it that way?
3. I hope he keeps his promises!
4. She won’t react like that again, will she?
5. I want the assurance that this choice is the best for my future.
6. I hope everything goes well next week.
Then ask yourself the following question:
Letting go of control – question 2: Can I actually control that?
That’s a simple question that most people never ask themselves.
Can you really change this? Do you really influence here? Is this within your control?
There are two options:
a) Yes, you can do something about this. Great – stop worrying and do it!
b) No, you have no influence (anymore) on this. Then you can only accept this and let it go.
Letting go of control – question 3: Am I willing to let it go?
We usually do not get around to this step either. We intellectually understand that we have to let go of something, but we just don’t want or ca n’t.
Why not? Because we still feel too many negative emotions: fear, uncertainty, doubt, regret, frustration, etc.
Yet there is one very good reason to let it go: Because letting go helps yourself . Because you hold with yourself disadvantage . It’s just in your best interest.
And after you make this decision, your emotions automatically start to change. Then your emotions become positive and relaxed again.
Make the decision now:
“Yes, I realize that I am only hurting myself by sticking to what I cannot (anymore) change at the moment. In the interest of my own mental and physical health, I decide to let go of this. I know it will make me feel better. So I am willing to let it go. ”
The final step: Let it go!
Now you have seen what you are trying to control. You have seen that you cannot control it. You know you have to let it go. And you are willing to actually let it go.
Congratulations! Now you are ready for the final step: Let it go!
Use a short sentence (also called a belief, affirmation, autosuggestion, or mantra) to help you through this step.
Your own words are always the best!
Here are some examples you can use:
1. It’s okay.
2. I let go.
3. It is the way it is.
4. I’m at peace with it.
5. I forgive myself.
6. I forgive him / her.
7. I accept it.
8. It’s good enough.
9. I let it rest.
Pay attention! This exercise is not a one-off.
You will have to repeat this often. It is an illusion that we suddenly start to feel everything differently. But you will definitely feel different when you practice with this!
There is no other option: repetition is the mother of every skill.
And lasting relaxation is the result of regular practice of letting go.
Relaxation becomes a habit if you keep practicing.
Keep in mind that sooner or later check comes up again and says:
“Hey, not too relaxed! Come on, we have so much to plan, check, change. You still have to worry, worry and think about the past. You still have to worry about everything! ”
Control is a habit – and habits keep coming back. Especially in the beginning. But keep practicing.
You will find that each layer you release in one area helps you in other areas as well. If you let go of control at work, you can also do that in your relationships. The gist is always the same, remember?
Let it goooooo!
Letting go is an art that you can refine throughout your life. There is no end point, we can always let go of something deeper.
To say it with Elsa from the animated film ‘Frozen’: Let it goooooo!
With every layer of tension you release, you gain access to a hidden layer of energy and well-being. Do you have any idea how many extra layers of energy and well-being are still waiting for you? Can you imagine how good you would feel learning to tap it?
Do you want to find out? Do you want more relaxation and more energy?
Go on research and make the best choice to take actions….
Happy relationships are no accident. Neither are unhappy relationships. They are the result of conscious choices:
1 – Love and trust are handled differently
from unhappy relationships.
2 – There is more depth and more is shared.
3 – Both partners are emotionally independent and appreciate this in each other.
Do you have to end your relationship immediately in case of relationship problems? No Fortunately not!
Learn from the lessons of happy relationships and apply them to avoid a lot of relationship problems.
Just read the comments below …
How do you get a happy relationship with someone else?
What is a Happy Relationship? Very simple, that is a relationship that gives you energy and where you and the other feel good. The secret to a happy relationship is to stay yourself and let the other person remain themselves.
How do you get a happy relationship? By working on it. But… you have to know very well if you have the right partner to do that. You cannot fly with a boat, so the choice of your relationship partner is very important.
Happy without a relationship or happier with a relationship?
Better happy without a relationship than not happy while you are in a relationship, isn’t it? In a happy relationship you don’t test each other, you trust and support each other. If not, then you may be better off without the other. You don’t have to have a huge spiritual relationship, but love and trust do have to be there.
These pillars of a relationship always remain important, whether you are in a long relationship or a short relationship with someone.
These are the seven TOP tips for a happy relationship:
1. Love makes for a happy relationship.
In unhealthy relationships, love is a bargaining chip: “I only love you if you do this for me. And when it does, I hate you. “
Love is a means to an end, which is to gain control over the relationship.
Unfortunately, control and happiness are at odds with each other. So trying to get control in your relationship (by trying to control the other) and being happy in your relationship don’t usually go together.
For example: As long as you do what the other wants, there is love. And otherwise there is the opposite: anger, aversion, jealousy or envy. So love is very limited and usually just a snapshot.
Set conditions for your happiness.
In happy relationships, few conditions are placed on love. “I love you just the way you are.” Or: “As long as you do what makes you happy, I’m too happy.” This allows love to grow.
And love only grows in trust, not in control, because control is based more on fear and fear hooks on love.
So let go of control:
The more you feel that the other person loves you the way you are, the more you can be yourself – and the more love you can give back.
2. No happy relationships without trust.
There is little trust in unhappy relationships. Whenever you are hurt by the other person’s behavior, trust diminishes. In the end you take everything the other says with a grain of salt. Without trust there is no love, depth, intimacy or understanding, so the relationship becomes increasingly distant.
People in happy relationships trust each other blindly. They know exactly what they can do for each other. Perhaps it took a long time for this confidence to be established. But once present, it continues to feed the relationship with positive energy. You know that the other person wants the best for you – and vice versa of course.
Trust is the most important ingredient to a happy relationship, be it a relationship with your partner, with your friends or with colleagues. Trust is everything.
3. Depth is necessary for every relationship.
In less good relationships communication is superficial. You never know what is really on the other’s mind – or you don’t feel the need to tell them what’s on your mind . As a result, conversations never get to the core: what someone really thinks or feels. There is a lot of talk about situations (what messages have been done, what the weather forecast is), but little about deeper feelings.
In happy relationships, that depth is there. There is talk about what really concerns the other. When you share the bed, you are physically intimate. When you share feelings, you are emotionally intimate. Without intimacy, there is only distance. Depth is essential to avoid that.
4. Sharing makes happy relationships even better.
Little is shared in superficial relationships. It seems as if everyone leads their own life and only lives together by chance. Interests are not shared, experiences are not exchanged and ideas are not discussed. The relationship resembles two islands with a very long bridge in between. You can only share by crossing. But usually that is a bridge too far. Everyone stays on their own island …
In happy relationships, a lot is shared (not everything, as there may be a part that you would rather share with others or keep to yourself). That sharing creates a bond. Sharing is giving something away and then receiving it twice back. As they say: “Sharing is caring.” Two islands have converged …
5. Laughter is healthy for any relationship.
There is little laughter in bad relationships. Everything is heavy and serious. There is usually no ability to put things into perspective. Sometimes people escape this by seeking pleasure outside of the relationship. “She’s always so serious, I just want to have fun with my friends.” Or: “He sees everything so black, at least with my best friend I can laugh …”
Happy relationships do involve a lot of laughter. Laughing together – even if it’s just about your own shortcomings – is so liberating! What do you do when you’ve had a rough day? Sometimes you just don’t feel like talking about it. Then you feel better at a comedy or a pillow fight. A day without laughter is a day wasted. Laughter provides light, warmth and relaxation. Smile, damn!
6. Without independence there is only dependence.
In difficult relationships there is always some form of dependence. One partner is dependent on the other. It doesn’t even have to be financial dependence. More often it is an emotional dependence. It’s as if one of the two cares less about what the other does. The person who has the least to lose if the relationship ends is the one who determines the relationship.
In healthy relationships there is equality. Two people decide: “We feel fine without each other, but even better together. We choose to be together. Not out of necessity or poverty, but out of love. ” Both people value each other and do not allow one to prevail or determine the relationship.
7. Appreciation is necessary for all happy relationships.
In bad relationships, the focus is very much on what the partner is doing wrong. “I say it every time, but you never get it right!” Or: “When will I get through to you?” Since the focus is on the other person ‘s shortcomings , there is a lot of dissatisfaction. More attention is paid to what is not there than to what is.
Happy couples appreciate each other.
1 – You know that the other is not perfect.
2 – You have no desire to change him or her.
3 – You forget the small mistakes and focus on what you do appreciate.
You cannot appreciate someone until you stop focusing on their flaws. That does not only apply to your relationship, but also to yourself!
Do you want a happy relationship with other people?
With your partner, or with your family, friends or colleagues?
Then you need more insight – and you also need to work on yourself. Because a good relationship always starts with a good relationship with yourself .
To your success.
Keep your relation moving.
Hello Everyone. In this article I will try to explain the Brookfield Reflection Model in a practical way. After reading you will understand the basics of this powerful communication tool. Get ready and move on. . .
What is the Brookfield Reflection Model?
The Brookfield Reflection Model is a tool for teachers to discover the value of their lessons through critical self-reflection. Brookfield states that critically reflective teachers and tutors are excellent teachers who can authentically convey their own voice to others.
As teachers reflect more and better, they are better able to make reliable and accurate judgments about teaching approaches, evaluation, planning curriculum design, assessments and dealing with student problems. It is therefore crucial to perform these responsibilities with a critical evaluation from as many different perspectives as possible.
Many schools encourage teachers to think critically about their own teaching and student learning using Stephen Brookfield’s four different interconnections. These four reads are used for critical self-reflection, as well as by developing a critically reflective teacher.
Who developed the Brookfield reflection model?
The Brookfield Reflection Model was developed by Stephen Brookfield in 1995. Brookfield has taught in several countries during his teaching career. Among others, he taught in the United States, England and Canada. During his career Brookfield wrote nineteen books. The topics of these books ranged from critical thinking, discussion methods, critical theory and learning racing. His goal has always been to help adults learn to think critically about the dominant ideas that each person has internalized.
What are the four reads of Brookfield’s critical reflection?
According to Brookfield, critically reflective teachers provide three benefits:
- Inspiring confidence
- Achieving SMART goals
- Motivated, critically reflective students
The goal of the critically reflective teacher is to acquire a greater awareness of her or his own teaching from as many points of view as possible. For this Stephen Brookfield has developed four reads in the Brookfield reflection model. These can be used by teachers in the process of critical reflection. It concerns the following four reads, or perspectives:
- The autobiographical lens
- The eyes of the student
- The experiences of colleagues
- Theoretical literature
These reading correlate with the processes of self-reflection, feedback , peer review, and deliberation on scientific literature. By continuously improving these processes, the foundation is laid for better education and the means to become a good teacher.
1. The autobiographical lens
This is the first lens of the Brookfield reflection model, and is also where a teacher can reveal aspects of pedagogy that may need to be enhanced or modified. The autobiographical lens helps teachers to consider their own experiences with students in relation to teaching and learning. The analysis of this learning experience will help uncover assumptions and beliefs about how people learn.
Aspects of their pedagogy can be revealed through textbooks, evaluations, student feedback, personal results or other techniques. Self-reflection is the basis for reflective education.
Activities within the autobiographical perspective
- Philosophy of Education and Learning
- Education logs
2. The eyes of the student
It is necessary to go beyond mere reflection through the autobiographical lens. According to the Brookfield reflection model, it is of the utmost importance that teachers understand the experiences of students. Teachers can do this by, for example, conducting evaluations with students, about learning styles, testing methods, focus groups or interviews. This ensures that they will teach more responsibly. The student lens further reveals whether assumptions about power relationships need to be adjusted, as well as student learning habits through feedback.
Activity perspective of the student
- Formal Evaluations
- Classroom evaluations
- Focus groups
3. The experiences of colleagues
Good teachers keep their focus on the first two lenses, but excellent teachers will also be deeply involved in those processes, as well as reaching out to peers for mentoring, advice and feedback. In addition, teachers can gain confidence through contacts with other teachers. That’s because they discover that they are not the only ones who make strange mistakes, but that they are shared by peers. Also exchange experiences in the field of working in teams, participating in seminars, workshops, peer reviews, or thinking about educational theories and methods.
Activities experiences of colleagues
- Learning circles
- Collaborative Problem Solving
- Critical interviews and evaluations
4. The theoretical literature
The fourth and final lens of the Brookfield reflection model for critical reflection in education is contained in the scientific literature on higher education. Teachers who research, present, or publish this literature have advanced vocabulary and many methods of teaching practice. A commitment to both scientific literature and colleagues supports teachers.
Activities theoretical literature
- Trade magazines
Tips for introducing critical reflection in education
As a teacher it is sometimes difficult to apply new methods or techniques while teaching. Use the step-by-step plan below to stimulate critical reflection in the students.
Tip 1: arouse curiosity
When students have to learn new concepts or topics, they often experience a sense of uncertainty and imbalance if they do not immediately understand the new information. Critical reflection is needed to assess new information and resolve the imbalance. It takes a lot of energy and time to do this. Arousing curiosity in students can motivate them to participate in the reflection process. Providing the right activities and asking the right questions can help spark curiosity.
Tip 2: make reflection continuous
Integrate periodic, structured opportunities to reflect on learning. Because critical reflection is a defined way of thinking, students should have sufficient opportunities to give and receive feedback. Various activities can be used to promote reflection, including: writing exercises, problem-solving activities, role-plays, discussions and simulations. Working in groups is also an important activity to stimulate reflection. To be effective, however, the activity must be linked to the learning outcomes of a course or training.
Tip 3: give reflection the right context
To support the integration of learning into courses, it is important to engage students with major questions pertaining to public or community issues that can be addressed outside the classroom. This is where the Brookfield reflection model can make a difference. Reflective activities then encourage students to identify and consider messy, poorly defined problems that do not have a correct answer or approach. This helps mold them to a higher order of thinking and levels of reflection.
Tip 4: model the reflective process
By organizing and modeling the feedback or reflection process by asking the kind of questions that are specific to a discipline. Indicate how a claim is supported with evidence, and explain during the process how the reflection process is modeled. Giving students a rubric also allows them to practice the process.
Tip 5: Encourage evaluation from different perspectives
Being exposed to different perspectives is crucial to the reflective thinking process. This can be achieved through discussions with classmates, lectures, websites, simulations or case studies. They all represent different points of view, and are able to enter into dialogue with others on matters that are crucial. Students can work on this by getting started with collaborative projects.
The usefulness of critical thinking
There is no one who can think critically all the time. Sometimes our thinking is affected by anger, sadness or joy. On the other hand, it is possible to increase current critical thinking capacity by performing certain routine activities on problems of everyday life. This is also the goal of the Brookfield reflection model. Try the following simple exercise.
Exercise critical thinking
Think about something someone recently told you. This could be random news, gossip or story. Then ask yourself the following questions:
- Who said it?
- A well-known?
- Someone with a certain level of authority?
- Does it matter who told this?
- What has been said?
- Have facts been communicated?
- Or opinions?
- Has anything been left out in the story?
- Where was this said?
- Was it in public?
- Or private?
- Has the person in question had the opportunity to respond to it? Or to deny?
- Why did they say it?
- Is someone trying to get out of a story well?
- Has the reasoning behind their opinion been communicated?
- Have you tried recording it for someone?
- How is it said?
- Was the person happy or sad? Angry or Indifferent?
- Is it written or spoken?
- Can you understand what was said?
The skills required to think and evaluate critically are varied and include analysis, interpretations, reflections, observations, explanations and problem solving, as well as decision making. In any case, teachers must be able to:
- To look at a topic or problem in an objective and self-critical way
- Identify various arguments related to a particular problem
- Recognize weak or negative points in evidence and arguments
- Evaluate views to determine how valid it is
- Provide structured reasoning and support for the argument being made
- Notice the implications or problems of a statement or argument
The Stephen Brookfield Critical Incident Survey
Each week throughout his teaching career, Brookfield asked students to complete a questionnaire. The answers that are given are a central part of the feedback that a critically reflective teacher receives on a continuous basis. The questionnaire takes approximately five minutes of students’ time to respond to each of the questions below. The questionnaires must be completed anonymously. Therefore, do not have the names written on the paper. At the end of the next lesson, Brookfield discussed the answers with the group. It is important to actively thank the students for their participation. After all, they are one of the most important links to improve in the teaching profession. The questionnaire is therefore a very important part of the Brookfield reflection model.
The questions on the Stephen Brookfield Critical Incident Survey read as follows:
- At what point in class, or at what class, did you feel most involved in what was happening?
- At what point in the class, or at what class, did you feel the furthest away from what was being discussed or what was going on?
- Which action, whether performed by a teacher or a fellow student, did you find most helpful and appropriate?
- What action, whether performed by a teacher or a fellow student, did you find the most puzzling or confusing?
- Which part of the curriculum surprised you the most during this week?
The subject of Brookfield’s reflection model is reflective teaching. This reflection process is a cycle that must be repeated to become even better at teaching. In short, this reflection process consists of the following steps:
- Assess effect of teaching on student learning
- Consider new methods that can improve quality
- Repeat process
Reflection is a systematic assessment process that can be used by all teachers. It is also a fundamental part of the Brookfield reflection model and should be part of every teacher’s toolbox. The reflection model encourages working with others, as others can be relied on for feedback and support. Ultimately, reflection on the part of the teacher ensures that students can learn better and more effectively. Everything is eventually tuned to them.
Now it’s your turn
What do you think? Do you recognize the explanation of the Brookfield reflection model? Is critical reflection applied in the educational system in which you are / were active? Do you think many teachers stick to old teaching methods? And that a radical change is needed in the way teaching is done? Or do you think the old methods are more effective than new and at first glance controversial methods?
Share your knowledge and experience via the comment field at the bottom of this article.
If you found the article useful or practical for your own knowledge, please share it with your network. Thank you so much.